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WITH regard to the sounds of the Chinese language 
She student would da well to consult Morrison's Gram- 
mar, which contains a short treatise on4he subject, la 
MarshmanVClayis Siuica,' there is a long and too theo* 
reticai essay. An able paper on this topic appears it* 
the Illrd Vol. of the Chinese repository, Na 1. Abel 
Roi/iusat's Gramtrmire Chinoise, contains a lucid expo 
oition of the system. Premare, in his Notitue, is v^ry 
short The introiuction to Kanghe's Dictionary, ftom 
whence most of the remarks of the above writers have 
been taken, is very full on the subject. For the FokeeB, 
in particular, gee Medhurst's introductory remarks to 
his Dictionary of that dialect, -and Dyer's -system of 
intonation; while for the Canton dialect, the Chinese 
Chrestomathy may be consulted, which adds Httle to the 
^3-neral notices contained in the above wofks. 

i. On examining the. great mass of tte sounds of 

language, they appear as if they were the 

^ dilation made by a child, Ajch just 

^ m& la, he 5 foo; Sfor of 


simple.monoe-\ilables do the greater part of the words 
itesisl;; : ..TBey^te thus the bare pronunciation of the 
elements of which every other language consists, with- 
out their multifarious combinations. 

2. The Chinese is the most monosyllabic tongue on. 
-earth, though not entirely so. The Annjtmese is fuller, 
and admits of more combinations; the Siamese resem* 
bles the Chinese in many respects, so also the Laps, but 
both have a greater number of polysyllables; the Birmah 
and Pegu, two cognate dialects, have increased their 
compounds, and the Cambodian still more so; the Ko- 
rean and Japanese are decidedly polysyllabic, though 
admitting of Chinese sounds to a great extent. It may 
also be remarked, that the Chinese oral medium has 
more combined words than the written one. 

3. The student must therefore be prepared to deal 
with monosyllables in all their imperfections. If he 

4 merely wishes to study Chinese literature, this subject 
need not engage much of his attention; but if, on the 

contrary, he intends to speak the language, he must from 
the very first, bestow much care upon repeating, after 
the teacher, with a shrill voice, every sound, endeavour- 
ing to assimilate his enunciation, as much as possible, 
to the Chinese drawl. Missionaries, above all, must 
acquire the proper pronunciation, from frequent oral 
communications with the natives, and they cannot do 
better than live amongst the people, in order to ensui < 
the acquisition of their dialects. Difficult as is the 
task, still many stupid Malays and Negros have learnt 
to pronounce the tones of the Chinese language bv 
this means; whilst well-educated men, who have confin- 
ed themselves to their teachers, have found great dif- 
ficulty of utterance, whenever they come in contact 
TOth the common people. The table of syllables, in 

v Morrison's alphabetic Dictionary, or that contained in 
Prsmare's Notitiee, if repeatedly read with a native, will 
pcrbapb assist the student in acquiring the various 
souses contained in the Chinese language. We have, 
for the most part, retained Morrison's orthography. 
which though<K-fective, is still the best invented* 

CHAP. i. s4toros. 3 

4, In characterizing the language as monosyllabic, 
\ve do not mean to say, that it is entirely so; for it eon- 
tains compounds of two, three, four, five, and even six 
syllables, e. g. ^t *t seen s&ng, a teacher, }fe p 
hae kow, a harbour. lljk ^ TJJ? tsung ping kwan* a 
Lieut.-General. ^ !~ ^ tseen le king, a spy glass. 
?K B^ ^ ^ shuysze te tub, an admiral. fp 
^ 1 ^v ^ me t'heen che ta kwo, an abomin* 
ation. 1$ M A -^ nu y kb ta heo sze, a 
minister of state. ^ ^ ^ ^. ^ pth te' cfce 
hae tang hwa, Pyrus Japonica: while those of two are 
of very frequent occurrence, (see the chapter on words.) 

5, The sounds of the Mandarin dialect have ch, e, 
f, g, gn, h, (aspirated) j, k, 1, in, n, c, r*g, p, s, sb, 68, t 
ts, u^ w, and y, for initials, when expressed by our letters: 
the finals are our vowels, with the German or Italian 
pronunciation, besides *n and ng; in this we do not in- 
clude the syllable urh, which is unique in its kind* 
The initials k, p, and t are sometimes aspirated, as J^ 
be, a foundation. $$ and k'he, a period, g, pa, crust* 
and ^ p'ha, a curtain. $t teih, to guide, $r andt'heih 3 
to fear; these aspirates ought to be carefully marked 
from the very commencement. The final vowels 
form a number of dipthongs, such as ae ? aou, ay, ei, eaou, 
and ow. This is perhaps the most simjple system of 
sounds fc existence, 

6, The numerous dialects spoken throughout the 
empire Jifikr considerably from the Mandarin, both in 
the imi iak as well as in the finals, and it is next to 
impossible to give an outline of these variations. Even 
the Mandarin dialect is spoken in various ways; the 
northern people aspirate the words very strongly, and 
pronounce the short words, such a$ %. tth, virtue; and 

)) peih, must, as softly as if they ended in a short 
yowel; whilst more to the south, and in most of the pro- 
vincial dialects, they are uttered abruptly as if they ter- 
minated in d, k, p, or t; thus & tseu&, to cut off, sounds 
like tsoat ^ ke&, a bud, as kap. % keo, a horn, as 
ke'ok. Ts is oft^n interchanged with ch, and sh; and 
vice versa, A diphthong and vowel are not pro- 


& if they formed separate syllables; but the 
is always uttered short, so as almost to coalesce 
with- the former:- thus 3 leaou, finished, does not 
sound like Ikaou. but leaou. ^ tew, not te-u,but tlu. 

7. The great bulk of the nation has no idea of spell- 
ing, but in several native dictionaries, a system of di- 
viding words into initials and finals is introduced, 
adopted perhaps in imitation of the Sanscrit, and by 
Kang-he cm-tied to a great extent. In the national 
dictionary there are nine series of initials, called ^ -$- 
tsse * f VOQ, 36ih number, llie first five have four, the sixth 
a?nd seventh series have five, the eighth has four, and the 
tdnth has only two sounds. The finals called flfc ^ neS 
jfcjn; aie-twelve in number, eight of which are vowels 
or diphthongs; and four nasals. By means of these 
two classes the spelling of every word is effected. Thug 
Suppose you wish to intimate how the character 
JiL l&o, little, sounds; you would write jfc, lae, come, 
8>r the initial, j^j led, to steal, as the final; thus 1 (ae 
and 1) e6 becomes Ie5. This is a very tedious process, 
and aot'eVfeH understood by the natives. The curious 
reader will find' enough upon this subject, in Kanghe's 
dictiouary, and Marshman's grammar^ 

8^ The whole number of distinct sounds formed in 
Hie above manner is 629, including 195 aspirated ones, 
It WdUtS haxxe-been quite impossible to have expressed 
^riB6ffs with so very few articulations of the voice, and 
AeTefdrethe* Chinese intonated them to increase their 
variety and distinctness. There are altogether font 
tones,, called^" shing, as ^ ping, the eveD,J; shang f . 
the high on0,0furac ate, ^ kheu, the low or falling 
soundy our grave;, and the J?v juh, or abrupt sound. 
The Chinese, mark them thus, i ^ ^ this, 
however* is not done, unless the word receive a dif- 
ferent signification from wha" it has generally, and 
only very exact writers, in few cases, make use of this 
diacritical mark. The reason is, that every native when 
hearing for the first time a word pronounced, though, 
otherwise entirely ignorant of the system,, knows imme* 
diately ta what sound* i* bdougs, Wsstew 


lars mark thera^ when expressing Chinese in Roman 
letters, the ping, by a, the shang, by a, the k'beu, 
by a. the jfch f by &. This intonation is a very 
essential part of the language, to which a student from 
the. very first must accustom his ear. It would be in 
vain to attempt to convey an idea of the proper pronun- 
ciation cf these tones by rules; the auditory organs alone 
must be consulted; and when the distinction between 
them is ascertained, t ought to be carefully marked, 
what tone each character bears, for otherwise none will 
learn to talk intelligibly. Premare^ Morrison, and 
others have given lists of the tones, which if attentively 
perused with a teacher, will best initiate the student 
in this mystery. 

9. The meaning of words, though to a foreign ear 
sounding in the same manner, is materially altered by 
intonation; thus ^g eh6o,ahinge; JjJ choo, a kitchen; 

J| choo, a place; jfe chuh,to go out. JJ. ma, hemp; 

3| ma, ahorse; J| ma, to scold; ^ m, or ino, to 

wipe. Only those words which end in a simple vowel 
can have the short sound. Hherearenot many sounds 
that have tttis regular number of intonations ; 533 have 
the ping, 501 the shang, 519 the k'heu, and 221 the 
jiih, which gives the whole number of different sounds, 
varied by tones, to be found in the Chinese language, 
as 178L 

10. It is remarkable that the same system of intona- 
tion is found throughout all the dialects, and it may 
therefore be considered as an essential part of the lan- 
guage. Some dialects subdivide the tones into two 
classes, higher and lower ping, shang, &c, whilst poets 
merely divide them into ^ ping, even; and JL tsih, 
deflected; subdividing them again into v^ tsing, clear, 
and >U chub, impure tones. 

11. Notwithstanding this intonation, there are still, 
an immense number of words, which, though conveying 
different ideas, are to a European ear pronounced exact- 
ly alike; no les& than 1165 characters heave the sound 
rfe, and of the other sounds, tbare are often from 50 to 
ISO dbaiacte to each* aod ou average 16 characters to 

fj SOUKftS. CHAP. L 

each intonation, so that notwithstanding this refine- 
ment of tones there exists stii! very great confusion in 
the enunciation of this extraordinary language. 

12. We have already remarked, that several cha- 
racters change their signification with the variation of 
the tone, as for instance g| yu, rain, becomes jj? yu, it 
rains; f|J woo, to hate, becomes H woo, or hoo, how ? 

H 6. or go, bad. Thus many substantives and adjec- 
tives are turned into verbs by giving to them the k'heu 
tone, as jt choo, aJord; choo,to rule; 1 shang, 
above; Jg shang, to ascend. Poets assume great liber- 
ty in changing the intonation, for the sake of cadence 
and rhyme. We would urge the reader most particular- 
ly to give his attention to this subject, as this peculi- 
arity is so very frequently overlooked. 

13. Many characters change their signification, by 
adopting different sounds, or in other words, certain cha- 
racters have a variety of sounds and meanings. For 
instence, the character )rg read khe, means elegant, tall ; 
readkan, it signifies sincerity ;&] ke, to cut; read kwae. 
means to sharpen. This will appear still more clear, 
on examination of the dictionary: we merely subjoin 
the remark, that there are several characters, which 
may he read with two different accents, or even sounds, 
without changing the meaning. 

14. It frequently happens that a similarity of sound 
conveys a similarity of meaning, thus "tt, king, $2. 
lung,^ king, and *g king, mean all violent; so also 

ii Ifj JR. 4R. 3R an< i ^ a ^ pronounced juen, or 
nwan, mean equally soft. This is not merely the case, 
where there is an apparent similarity of character, but 
also where these have not the slightest resemblance, i-i& 
HI heae, CJK! fit heae, bold: ^ and T g heaou, to 
call out. It is worthy of observation, that to a certain 
class of sounds, a certain series of ideas is attached, 
which remark would be confirmed by a reference to the 
dictionary: we shall quote here some examples : ^ 
shih, %g che,^j? seih, and H seth, all signify to know> 
to be acquainted wiih, yjij tung, ^ tung, |g. and tsung, 


fmmg, mean obscure, dull, A slight attention to thte 
subject, w/mld greatly facilitate the acquisition of the 
meaning of characters. 

15. Many passages in Chinese boolcs are obscure, be* 
cause the writers, not consulting the meaning of the 
characters, and merely expressing the sound, without 
reference to the Dictionary, havegreatly embarrassed the 
sense. This, is principally the case where persons have 
only a partial acquaintance with the written language. 

16. Without proper attention to the intonation the 
spoken Chinese language is a mere unintelligible jargon; 
great stress therefore should be laid upon the intonation, 
as a wrong tone is not only grating to the ear of the 
scholar, but perceptible by the most vulgar. In com- 
position, the Chinese carefully put together their words, 
so as to produce a rythmus. and when the regular cha- not suffice, they use expletives to render 
the cadence complete. It would be well for the foreign 
student, when -beginning to read Chinese, to do it just 
in the same singing manner as the natives employ, for 
by this means he will learn to proaounce correctly, and 
avoid confounding congenial sounds. 



FOR a general system of the Chinese character, see 
Abel Remusat's Grammar. Marshcnan's Grammar 
contains a variety of good ideas, mingled with some un- 
founded theories. 

1. To convey ideas of objects, by tracing an outline 
of them, is the first and most natural way of writing 
The Chinese being throughout an original people, a- 
dopted this mode in high antiquity, and the inventive. 
of writing is ascribed to tuh-he and TsangheS. Tbese 
tvorthiessresaidto haw fifet discovered this important 


art, on beholding the lines on the back of a tortoise, and 
the streaks with which beautiful insects are adorned. 
But as every body cannot paint, and the process in itself 
is a very tedious one, some more easy representation of 
ideas became necessary; the forms were contracted and 
remodelled, so as to suit the convenience of the writer. 
Tt is also very obvious, that for the greater part of ideas 
no imitative representations could be made,, and there- 
fore new and arbitrary signs had to be invented. Thus 
did the present system of the Chinese characters come 
into being, and attain completion after many changes 
and improvements. They constitute without exception 
the most stupendous work of human genius, of which 
xhe literary world can boast, and were brought to per- 
fection by the incessant exertion and ingenuity of thou- 
sands of the most intelligent persons, chosen from a 
nation counting millions, apd this after the labour of 
many centuries. Their acquisition is, therefore, very 
difficult,, but their construction is worthy of our ad- 

2, They have been aptly compared to our numerals, 
each possessing an intrinsic meaning, with this differ- 
ence, however, that from the component parts of some of 
the Chinese characters the sound can be partially ascer- 
tained. As a graphic system they have beauty and 
expressiveness in their favour, but their being so nume- 
rous and difficult of acquisition are very, great defects. 
The paucity of sounds in this language renders all syl- 
labic, or alphabetic representation of the same nugatoiy, 
and the manifold dialects make their adoption a matter 
of impossibility. The characters, therefore, are best 
adopted to form the written medium of the Chinese 
language. ; but some of the cognates, as the K o/eaa and 
Japanese, possess a syllabic system, by which the sounds 
of the characters are indistinctly conveyed; and e?en 
the Cochin fonesvadmits of the use of certains $mbols, 
which serves for conveying the sounds, nearly in the 
same manner as the above-named system. It as by the 
use of tfc -victors that this great nafcu has remain* 

ed one. whole* and btf^ gn&i soever tha uiaiactisai atf- 


fere ; vices, the literature has * d the same, intelli- 

gible to the inhabitants of the most distant provinces, 
throughout all ages. 

3. The modes of writing the characters are various. 
Those in present use are, 1st, the & *$| sung te, in 
which character most of the books are (>rinfcu. It is 
firm and slid*, plain and perspicuous; but it is little used 
ip writing: 2nd, the ^ ^f ktae shoo, pattern style, an 
elegant and free hand, differing from the other by the to 
tai absence of all stiffness : 3rd; the -fj- H" hing shoo 
or running hand, which is the quick mode of writing 
used in the business of common life: 4th, the J ^ 
tsaoutsze, is the extreme of the above, full of abbrevia- 
tions and contractions, betokening the hurry, mth whirl 
the characters are written, and almost unintelligible, 
except to the initiated. With the firs* three, even 
one who makes any pretensions to Chinese scholarship 
should make himself acquainted, while he should ajs*- 
endeavour to read the latter. There are besides these 
three ancient forms, little used, except by pedants, anc* 
in prefaces. They are 1st, the jji % le shoo, officu* 
style. introduced about the commencement of our ere 
thus called on account of its being used in the publi 
offices; it is more coarse and clumsy than any of th 
above, but has furnished the elements from whence th 
present mode of writing was drawn: 2nd, the ^ ^1 
chuenshoo, a square character totally different from a 
others, almost exclusively used for seals : 3rd, the $$ $- 
k'ho tow, tadpole style; this is the primary hieroglyphic 
first used at the invention of writing, and now entirely / 
obsolete. The Chinese characters ere written from top f 
to bottom, and from the right to the left of the page, 

4. A good classification of the characters i> still a d- 
sic! era turn; the Chinese have very little method in siu- 
matters, and exhibit therein the total absence of a phil 
sophi-cal spirit. The original and most nutural division 
which is still retailed i.n some Japanese dictionaries 
is to place their* according to their signification. Thu 
all characters that denote celestial objects are place 
uuder one head, those which signify berreetiol ones mi- 


der another, &e. This arrangement, however, has ma- 
By great defects, and renders it often very difficult to 
fed a character. Ihe mode adopted. by Kanghe and 
others, is to place the characters tender keys or ra* 
dica3$, called %5 poo; and another plan is to divide the 
ivhole mass of sy mi- ols according to the principles on 
which they were originally constructed. 

5. In detailing the latter classification we follow 
native authors: 1st, there are characters refering to na- 
tural objects, to which they bear some resemblance; 
these are called ^ $1 hing seang, or hieroglyphics. 
Such are $ muh, derived from ts? the eye, &c. $- 
tsze, from ^ a child, &c. in all 608 in number. 
2nd, there are characters that combine two or three 
ideas, in order to form a whole, as 3| seang, from wood. 
eye, and bamboo, which joined together signify a box. 
(the ( hinese have them elegantly made of bamboo.) 
l/D ning, composed of sun and moon; signifying toge- 
ther bright, clear: these are called ^ ^ hwuy e, 
combination of ideas, amounting to 740 in number: 3rd, 
those which convey by their formation some idea of situ- 
ation or form; as j=L san, three, formed of three strokes 
put together; 7\ hea, for ^ below, i and shang, for -i- 
above; these are called^S^che sze> indications of things, 
and are together 107. They might however, very pro- 
perly be'placed in the first class, 4th, there is # class, 
Called inverted symbols^ which have lost their originaf 
form; thus^ yew, right, for *)* ;andjfe tso, left, for ^ : 
these are called ^ ^L chuea choo, inverted significa- 
tions, and are 372 in number. This class seems to be 
Entirely fanciful. 5th, there are characters that have lost 
their direct meaning, and have retained the metaphorical 
one. Such are t'heih, a concealed heart, now used 
for vice. J# chub, grass springing forth, used fcr to go 
out. These are called jL f*| kea tseay, metaphorical, 
aflic? are 598 m Dumber. 6th, characters conveying some 
idea of sound are called ^ % shing hing, phonetic 
characters; they consist of compounds, of wjiich one con- 
veys the idea, and the other the sound: thut> 4fe pih, a 
cypress , composed of ^ muh, a tree, and & pih, 


white. The former indicates the idea, the latter the 
sound. 3^ gno, a goose, coro posed of ^ guo, the 
sound, and ^ neaou, the bird. This latter class is 
the most numerous, and contains no less thaia 21,810; 
making with the above 24,235 characters. 

6. The elements of the characters are very sample; 
a horizontal and a perpendicular line, two obKque ones 
drawn in different directions, one with a hook at the 
end, and a point or dot; from these few strokes the 
vast variety of Chinese symbols has been framed, and 
they are all found in the character jjc yung, eternal. It 
is remarkable, that neither the circle nor the triangle has 
been used, whilst the square appears in the most varied 
forms. Calvgraphy is a science amongst the Chinese, 
and nobody can lay claim to scholarship without being 
able to write a fair hand. Much attention, therefore, is 
bestowed on the art of drawing the characters, and tnaay 
of the Chinese write very beautifully. The student 
ought to learn from a native teacher how best to sketch 
the symbol, and carefully imitate his manner. 

7. The radicals under which the Chinese characters 
are classified, are 21 4. It is by no means necessary 
that there should be so many, for the forms of some are 
contained in others, and about one third have only 
a dozen characters under each, so that many of them are 
quite superfluous. In Gonsalves' Dictionary the num- 
ber has been considerably reduced. We may remark 
with regard to these radicals that most of them are ge- 
neric terms, under which a whole host of words is torn- 
prised ; such as ^ neaou, bird; $t yu, fish; ^ tsaou, 
gTass, &c. Though in many instances the radical in- 
fiuences the iiicaning, it must not always be interred, 
that this is the case; thus J|f tseay, to pretend, is found 
under the radical grass ; f|| kea, a price, is classed un 
der the .radical man, and so with a great many others. 
The number of characters arranged under each radical 
differs also very considerably ; thus *$ tsaou, grass, has 
1423; j- shwuy. water, has 1333; J show, the hand, 
has 1012; Q k'hi.w. the mouth, has S83, It appears 
that the inventors of this system Uave embodied in their 


list many original ideas, -whilst they have introduced 
150 various, sounds. Ibis shows that the classification 
now treated of, was the result of deep research and 
much labour. 

8. The principal use of these radicals, or keys, is to 
enable the student to find out the words in 'the Imperial 
Dictionary. As soon as be has discovered the radical, 
which occupies generally the most conspicuous part of 
the character, whether to the left or right, above or be- 
low, (the left being, however, the place of most of them,) 
he must oount the strokes of whieh the other part of the 
character is composed, and then look into the Dictionary, 
where he will find the word- arranged under its appro- 
priate radical, according to the number of the strobes: 
thus ^ tseay, tc borrow, is under the radical A, jin ? 
a raaiij with 8 strokes; $& j, will be found under the 
key i ho, fire, with 1 2 strokes, &c. The method of 
counting the number of strokes can only be acquired by 
use; thus * yih. is only considered as or- tri 

JC yew, and A mow, as two; and 12 k'how cbhb - 
ii>g three strokes. 

9, Many characters are writ ten in different ways; 
equally correct; thus ^ che, to rehab, may be written 

'% % and $| So jS.aaon, torains/is also writ* 
ten jgg J|g. and thus with many characters that are 
much in use, some of wbteh hs*T six 'diffetcnt forms; one, 
however, is always thepredojaiivvte. 

10. T Chinese lexicographers bve drawn a line of 
deraarkation between these --variations. 1. There are 
j ^1 ching tsze, characters which are correctly 
written, and have no variations. 2. (^ ^ tuivg 
tsze, identical characters, different forms having the 
same meaning, as j$| and -ff| shen, food, a mess; 
^ ^ * ^S* il, and ^ all pronounced kwei, 
tlr^' ebeek bones, a diverging road, ; 3. >f(t '^-t'himg 
sze, ckaracters that have some rolation to each other, 
and may be used promiscuously, such as $* tsan, to 
rcangle, ab? viced fbr H. three: Jg moln. hnn^y. used 
forjjlf mefc v S8cret. 4. ^ f piin ts^r- r and ' ^ 
kco tsze,' origiBiai and ancient forms of the character ; of 


these there are a good many, as js for k'heu to 
walk; A for & kwae, a clod. 5. <& ^ ^hiVi, 
or vulgar forms; this class is the most ous. 

as jti for jflL k-wei, a denum ; ^ for J| . c&o>*. <i place. 
In short every provincial dialer t has a numbe - of Cha- 
racters, that are not to be found m the IK;;.; ; <- W& 
tionory, and arc peculiar to the place itself, -. 
printed books (and especially in those written in 
colloquial style.) a great many abbreviations and con- 
tractions <*ve vnet- : wU.lron every page, wMch the reader 
v } >e rif-FiCE -will be < lerstand ; such 

nre^. far ^ ye:o severe; ^ lor ^ pan. to manage; 
HP A a lh>visand otljv- 

1L Characters gnghily Riodified,' ought not to be 
considered as syn0ftiifloti$j unless the respective charac- 
teristic parts have a similar meaning, and the charac- 
ters differ in xio oilier res j)ecl Thus nany charac 
have promiscuoi&ly -;^'-' Hifih, wood, M- chuh. bnnv 
and -^ 'tsacuf, grass, 'for radicals^ and if the .voairdnder 
of the form reserableb one the other, they may almost 
lie looked upon as synonimes. Should, however, 
prevailing figure be ^5 nhjb. a stone, /^ jiiL, a man, 
or jfo Mth, Ktrengtli, then how similar soever in form, 
they gewerally differ as widely in meaning. Many 
Eynibols are to an unaccustomed eye nearly alike, though 
the meaning is materially different; thus .^t ping, peace,, 
aM ^ hoo, a note of admiration in. or at. ^ 
keen, to see, and Jl pei, a pearl, or precious substance. 
in distinguishing these, the attention should be directed 
to see, whether a perpendicular stroke be used, or one 
with a hook nt the bottom, and whether the slanting 
Strokes be straight- or bent Kanghe has given, in the 
introduction of tl.e Ihiperial Dictionary a list of cha- 
racters, which resemble each other; and Dav>* has writ- 
ten a very useful treatise upon Chinese Culigraphy, 
in fl-'- !rai38a<?iions .^'the Royal . Asiatic Society. 

/The number of Chinese characters has been 

'.'<L The following estimate is perhaps 

nearest the truth. The characters in Kanghe's Diction- 

ary, are 31, 214; obsolete forms, 6.423; characters for 


the first time collected m that work 1,659; and cha- 
racters without name or meaning, 4 200; total 43,496. 
It is natural to suppose that these are not all in common 
use, and the question has again and again been asked, 
how many are wanted to enable a person to write upon 
any given subject. Some have said, that 2,000 were 
enough, not considering the increased number of ideas. 
which will need to be conveyed by persons writing on 
literary and religious topics. The result to which we 
have come is, that for the common purposes of life the 
above number would be nearly sufficient, but feat a 
professional writer* and a student of general literature, 
must have from 8 to 9,000 at his command. (See 
Dyer's very useful table of the most common characters.) 

13. We have already alluded to mere local charac- 
ters; of this description there are in tbe Canton dialect 

fl|5 chuk, to move, and Pfr iui, not: in the Fokeen. 

51 kea, a child, and $ lang, man, with many hun- 
dreds more. In books these vulgarisms are rarely 
found; but whosoever wishes to be thoroughly conver- 
sant with a dialect^ ought to make himself acquainted 
with these provincialisms. 

14. The characters used by the Chinese are ideo- 
graphic symbols, as rich in variety as the compounds of 
the Greek language. The Chinese, who are actuated 
in every thing by the rule of contrariety, instead of 
combining sounds, have multiplied by juxta-positiou 
the number of ideographic symbols. Other languages 
speak to the ear. the Chinese to the eye; in the first 
therefore it is extremely defective, in the second abun- 
dantly rich, without parallel in other literature. 

The most superficial observer will have remarked, 
that besides tbe keys, there are a great number of signs, 
which serve to compose characters. We shall here 
merely quote a few, the others must be collected from 
the Dictionary; the character ijjjj gno, I, forms a com- 
ponent part of DO less than 25 characters, to most of 
which it givr* soi'TJu; ^ chung, middle, of 19; fcr 
che, to kaenT, of 16, &e. 

1-5, It eanrot bo. deuiea. that these compounding 


symbols, in many instances, give not only sound, but al- 
so a generic meaning to the newly formed character; as 
is frequently the case with the radicals ; still there are 
no certain rules for these derivations, and though some 
may occasionally be traced, it is very difficult, to fix 
with certainty upon the signification. (See the Dic- 
tionary, where this subject is amply discussed.) A num- 
ber of characters contain the meaning of both the com- 
ponent parts; for instance -^ tng, from & kin, me- 
tal, and ^ tang, to ascend, means a stirrup; ^- tseu, 
from 3pt tseu, to take, and $ neu, a woman, imports 
to take a wife, to marry; Jl she, from Jf she, dead, and 

^ me, rice, produces ordure, excrements. |i niing, 
from ^ kin, metal, and J& ming, a name, to engrave. 
The student ought to accustom himself thus to trace 
the origin of the characters, and in so doing he will 
never cease to admire the great ingenuity of the Chi- 
nese in forming their language. 

16. If each Chinese character had but a single 
meaning, it would be tolerably easy to acquire a suffi- 
cient number of them; but besides the reasons that 
multiply in other languages the signification of words, 
there is in Chinese the similarity of sound with other 
characters, that leads to the confounding of significations; 
and moreover, a system of compounding two or more 
symbols, to convey a single idea, which renders the ac- 
quisition still more difficult Thus fc keu, for instance, 
means to raise, lift, move, elevate, introduce, recom- 
mend, to bring forward a subject, to praise, (used for 

jf^ yu, to praise,) to promote, all (used for fft keu, all,) 
to walk, (used for $j~ k'heu, to go.) to venerate (used 
for $f ke, to pray to,) to kill viciiros for sacrifice, (used 
for Hjj keih, to kill,) to confiscate smuggled goods, (used 
for ^ keu, to lay hold of,) besides three taels weight, 
other and a variety of other significations. Combined with 
wor3s to f >rm phrases it reads thus, j^ A keu jin, 
',:rnuuate of the second degree; ^ Up? keu tung, 
behaviour; ^ ^j keuhing, to put in practice , 
c keu, a nobleact; - j^l yih keu, with oae 

fc once; l) - keu she, the whole world; 


keu tseeti, to recommend; $j ^ kce, ; ]ca; : to arrange: 
$fc 3^1 paou keu, to patronize; ^ JljL seih ken, 
detail; J^ JL keu che, conduct; j^ .Jj leangkeu, 
twice; 4^ II: keu fa, to bring forward; A. jfa. ta 
keu, loudly; ^ ^ ^ ^ keu show che laou, a 
job; jjt JpL tae keu, to raise; fr ^ keu jang, to 
elevate; ^j^ tih keu, eminent; ^- ^ keu meers, 
to dispense ; ^ J^ kaou keu, to inform against, and 
many others. In this manner the meaning of the cha- 
racters is multiplied to a very great extent, and 
the most common ones ar subject to almost infinite 

17. It is therefore no email lask 10 become 
sant \vith the symbols of the Chinese language. Tiir 
best plan is to become ac^:-: ; - V({ with the <v,rn- 
mon ones first, aii<3 tlien to study the combinations. 
Having learnt a few hundred f*f these, others will occur, 
and rivet themselves in the memory al *iost mechanical- 
ly, until! the student masters a sufficient number. Let 
it never be forgotten, however, that undivided attention 
must be given to this subject by every one, who wishes 
to make real progress in the language; for it is only by 
bard labour, that a Chinese scholar can be formed. 


1. WE hare already intimated that the Chii- 
symbols form a system of ideography, so that every 
character expresses an idea. Thus jfc te, earth, J^ 
kwang, broad, fli keang, to speak, ^. tsae, ia, P^. 
tseay.ay! Of some, however, the meaning has been 
1*.:-,t../n{l iithr.-.'s serve as mere expletives, and arc used 
<miy |ii ihe >'kr of euphony, as J$~ he, and $L yay. 

2. lr:o i s ks upon this subject we shall co-- 
: r^ 'jurseV 'jipally to the written language, 

:HATV tit. -jRiwa. It 

only notice the oral pBedhm, in so far as it stands in re- 
lation with the other. The Chinese language is exceed 
ingiy dissimilar to one wegU **> toagxies, and the Eur?i 
peau stuclent at^yerv stt- 'he greatest discrepa^ 

ties, if not the utmost contrariety, jis cornered with all 
that he has been hitherto accustomed to. The sooner, 
therefore, su h alearr?* can ; di\esthiiiiselt of Ms former 
ideas of Grr^mrnar^tht better. A.jDcitf^ene hereopenfe 
before his eyes ? and the more completely he can localize 
himself in this new sphere, the more easily will ne com- 
prehend the structure of the Chinese tongue. 

3. Referring to the above enumeration of characters, 
it will be seen t tb. ^uagc m i, which ha* 

so maaj syrribol*; o foi > suppose 

that they weic fonned according ic the w^ats of 

and that no ; chatacler was framed, ttnl^as a new ides 
rei)dered it. rieces^ar. Them must ha^e been a 

great demaad for t^mh^ among a series of writers, who 
lif ed during a period of more than ^0 centuries, aod 
who touched almost upon every topic oi literc* 
penning volume upon volume, on each subject, if 
therefore, it may not be considered 4he rirhest language. 
{as far as the number of^ords is concerned,) it yields 
the palm of superiority to very ^few. 

4. The Chinese is remarkable for an abundance oi 
synonymes, which were perhaps found necessary, either 
to remedy the defect of a monosyllabic t ngue, or to 
aid in the rythmus. A great number of these have at 
most the same meaning, at any rate i* is difficult to dis- 
cern the shades of difference between some of them; 
take, for instance, the characters for expressing the idea 
of examining; they are. ^ cha, jj ch, ^ sang, 
% kaou, ft kc, ^ kew, ft sin, jfc keen, ^ 
aieen, ^ tau, Sj ^Sn^ |&j seuo, jg% yen, |g yug, 
.- keen, ^j| kwan^ j^ sbe, ^ keaou, ^ hih, 
j she.^fr kan, 4 in r|^ fang, |i ke, ^ kwei 
|^ seang,and ^ hTh, all of which, either separately 
or combined, bave this meaning. So also the : charac* 
teis&j speaking ; L as f ktiang, 

18 WOBDfc, CfiAP. ill. 

|. tan, ^ yun,1l yu, jq yufr,.|fe- lun, ^ 
fcaou, _ seu, &e. 

5. The great resources of the language, however. 
consist in its capacity for forming compounds. Phrase? 
containing two words may be divided into four classes: 
1. When both the characters are synonymous, as -^ 
^ cha cha, to investigate: H !g shea seay, to 
writer $ $L hae urh, a child: fj || seTh shuh, 
accustomed. 2. When one of the characters gives a 
a general, and the other a definite meaning, as ^ yf 
seu taou, tautology; in this instance, >^ taou, to speafc, 
gives the general, and ~| seu, to reiterate, the definite 
sense. Jjl jjfc sanyen^ stern y severe; where ^ yen, 
regulates the meaning; and $. ^ keaou pwan, to 
transfer, where 3t expresses the definite idea, 3. 
When two characters respectively contribute to give a 
new 'but cognate idea: thus $ $- pwan 16, a snare, 
from $ pwan, ropes thrown about to entangle, and 
$t lo, threads of silk: ^ ^ pei pwan, to rebel, 
from ^f" pei, to turn the back on, and $m pwan t to 
revolt: (^ -f^ tung pwan, a companion* from 8 
tung, together with, and ^ pwan, a^b associate, 4. 
When by the juxta-positioa of two characters an idea 
is elieked, which is not inherent in either of them: as 
j? ^ fang peen, alms, from ^r fang, a square, and 
^ peen, convenience: _jfc i seen giing^ a teacher, 
from $L seen, previous, and i sang, bcra: > ^ 
ling gae, your daughter, from ^- ling, honourable^ an(! 
^ gae, to Jove. 

6. The first class is the most numerous. The Ch^ 
nese, much delighting in euphony, group a great many 
characters together, merely for the sake of sund. Thus 
they say, ^fe. j$L e fuh, clothes; ^jr sfeg ming^ 
life. Or they form the words isriih a view to greatest dis- 
tinctness in the sounds^ and to prevent mistakes. Thus 
they combine } $ e yu^, for joyful; *t& e, alone, 
raight signify a hundred other things,, but by this cdlo- 
eaison its meamiig is fixed. So tbey say, fc ^ tszc 
seu, regular; there are so many words pronounced tsze, 
thai the latter r whe cnunriated, ^ooM not distinctly 

. r iii. woum IS 

convey the proper idea meant by tsze. This is the 
great secret, 'Why, notwithstanding the paucity of indi* 
vidual sounds, and the great sameness with which the 
characters are pronounced, there still exists so much 
distinctness in the spoken language. But these com. 
pommfe are already definitely fixed by the force of habit. 
and cannot be put together at random, something like 
our words topsy turvy* harum scarum, and similar ex* 
presskms. A fine ear will soon discover the propriety 
and euphony that exists in this juxta-positkm of wotxis. 
In fee spoken language these synonymes occur more 
frequently, for the above reasons, than in the written. 
Let it, however, not be imagined, that the above com* 
pounding characters can only join with one associate; 
for there are several that may combine with two ae three 
others, with equal justice. To give an instance of the 
ainazing^exuberance of the Chinese languge we <juote 
the following combinations: ^ ^fr w^n ho, *fy yjj* 
hoHuib, jfr $L koyung, jg ^ s&rng ho, $& 3f 
ho ping, JL ?0f t'bae ho, and f& ^ ho kite, all of 
which mean harmony, peace, concord* &c. So also 
* $ hwan he, ^ $k he 16, 4 ft fee yu, 
and $t ^ bin he, whieh mean joy, aaad a hundred 
others, with as many variations. Besides these, there 
are a few characters that are always used together, as 
ft ft gae tae 7 cloudy, atid ->]; yg sha imm, priest; 
a few also are repeated, as jg: jn pe pe, arranged iu 
order; and the language itself admits of tautology to a 
considerable extent 

7. The second class is far less numerous, and there 
exists yet no Dictionary that has eareMly collected them, 
either native or foreign. A few will be found inters- 
persed in every lexicographic work, and especially iu 
Morrison's. They ought to be made a peculiar subject 
of study, otherwise many passages and phrases will rie-> 
eessarily be misunderstood. $$ ^ kwei yin, for io- 
gtwace, means defalcation, which a beginner, pethap% 
would translate, to tose^money: j^ ^ kung kv?^, CK- 
ercises of a literary nature, and by -no means, meritorious 
tasjks. To fee able to understand and use this class of 


properly famishes the best proof of real progress 
in the study of Chinese lore. 

8. To the third class tnany words similar to our 
bricklayer, shcomaker, &c, belong. Under this head 
* T e also reckon a great number of metaphorical expres- 
sions, such as H X. ko tsub, to bind up the feet, gene- 
rally used for being fettered, or hampered;^ $ kwang 
kwn, a bare stick, a sharper: 7)* A seaou jin, a lit- 
tle man, a worthless fellow: ^ 4j| hwan fei, the soul 
flying, used for fainting; and many others, in which the 
Chinese have shown very great ingenuity. We ought 
here to remark, that it matters very little, whether in 
our acceptation of the words, the compounding characters 
are adjectives, substantives, or verbs; and Whether tfc<*y 
may be united with others belonging to a different class, 
the Chinese draw no such distractions, and amalgamate 
words at pleasure, no matter to what class they original- 
ly belong. 

9. The fourth class, certainly the most difficult, is 
not remarkable for its richness in primary ideas, but 
for its utility in describing scientific objects, or words 
that have been introduced by progressive civilization* 
such as $1 $f[. seun foo, a Lieut. Governor: jfc. jf 
sfawuy sse, an admiral: %& jfe twan choo, a fault, an 
error: ^f ^ wae ko, surgery. The student should 
imt separate tfcese expressions, but consider them as 
compounds; just as he woutl pollysyllabie words in any 
language, and thus read waeko, and not wae ko, no 
more than he would pronounce, or write sur gery, or 
trans actions. 

1(1 We should not be far wrong in affirming, feat 
the number of compounds in Chinese is greater than 
that of single characters, though most of the original 
ideas are conveyed in monosyllables, as is also the case 
in many instances in our own tongue. The Chinese 
language, moreover, is b well adapted to form new 
compounds, that the stock appears to be inexhaustible. 
As, however, every thing in Chinese Grammar depends 
Oc the collocation* of words, it is by DO fnea&s a& indi& 
feiettt' i&atttr w&kfe d fee two jp&^tO3 be put fce&re 

CHAP. if*. woitm 21 

and which behind; a transposition either deranges the 
whole idea, or gives rise to a new one ; thus 3t i 
seen sng, conveys the idea of "teacher;" hut trans- 
posed "born before/* So also -ft i gn choo, a 
patron, hut ' t Jft, choo g&it, the grafce of God, And 
ty g| chung kwo, China, but H *f* kwo chung, 
the middle of a kingdom. 

11. There are a great many characters, which 
though not forming a single idea, are very frequently 
found in company: such as ^ ;Q- tth hing, the prac- 
tice of virtue. >f~ H jin e 5 tefwolence and* justice; 

^J HP le hae, advantage and injury : ^t $8, t&ou 
le, the principles of reason. The line of demarcation be* 
Iween compounds and adventitious collocations cannot be 
drawn so definitely, that there should not be occasionally 
an approach to either side, IB regard to the above 
mentioned classes, it ought also to be remenibered, that 
they are not so distinct, as' our general rules would 
geem to intimate; still this arrangement may enable the 
student to classify the compounds with which he "meets 
critically, and thus considerably assist his memory. 

12. Though each of the last three classes have a 
distinct meaning in combination, yet they may occasion- 
ally be used separately; thus the compound JL H 
yen tsze, signifies together, faither and mother; butthej- 
may in certain connections be also read jS. yen, stem, 
and H tsze, kind t whicii^are the original meanings <tf 
the terms. So ^ ^ teth yen, a shuttle-eock 3 may 
also signify, to tread Upon a swallow; which meanings 
are conveyed by each character separately, 

13. In the collocation of two characters there is a 
great tendency to antithesis ; a peculiarity in which this 

language surpasses others. Expressions like these, 
Jj & hih pih, black and white; ^f jt haou tae^ 
good and bact; ^ jt- tung che, rootion and rest; 
^ Ban he^ male and female; ^ ^r laouyew, 
old and young; occur again and again, where other lan 
guages do not require them. Compounds are also form- 
ed by putting a negative particle Before an adjective, 
it tibe opposite inemiog; as fc ^f pub 


haou, bad; ^ |^ pub me, ugly, &e* this class is 

14. Compounds do not merely comprise two chfr 
tacters, but sometimes many; as ^ ]g ^ tseen le 
king, a spy glass; ||r H~ ~Jfe sew hwuy ehang, an 
abbot; $. 3^ A wae yangjin, a foreigner. There 
are scarcely any verbs or adjectives of this class, and 
most of the triple compounds signify ideas that hare 
been introduced into the language, since the march of 
intellect has made some progress. 

15. Compounds of four characters, are such as 
these, ^ X iit $1 s&ng seay keen peih, an abbr&> 
viation ; jj& ' ijfe. ^ ^ paou heen shin shin, detesr 
tation; words of ibis class are either strictly speaking 
compounds, as j% ^ ^ ^ seang Iwan che tsing, 
attachment; and ^ S^ ^ ^ sbwuy sze yew 
kefli, a post captain ; or they consist of the mere repeti* 
tion of two -compounds, as ^ ). ^- ^ paou 
ehangfungkeang, the defences ,(ofa country;) ^ ^ 
i> Jfc kin he yuh yg, delicacies: ^t' >u> ^ J^ 
sang sin ine^ k, abandoned, or they are ciflcumlo^ 
cations, such as ^ ^ ^ l& chow neen che nuy, 
within the cmnpass of e year; /^ /^ jfc jfe kwei 
tsan woo te, greatly ashamed; flL jli ^(t "fe kea 
tseay ming sfl^ pretence. Still, whatever they may be f 
they convey a single idea, more or less forcibly express- 
ed. There are very few of five characters like $| yf- 

Ui Jx $ lo foo san shihlan, the dendr(*bium; an3 
fl $J. St.; if IS keen ts^g die yen yu, appthegms. 

Those of six are mere frequently met with, a ^ ^ 
^ 56 ^ jt P aou heo shin tung king sze, 

learned; ^ ^ ^ ' $ ^ ^ tw^aa chwai^ 

ching s^i yen wei, majesty. 

16. It cannot be denied that seme of these latter 
compounds may be resolved into distinct significations, 
still the native reader considers them as expressing one 
idea, and the meaning thus conveyed by the aid of a 
animal: c ..ymbols is fixed more impressively upon hk 
iniod. The ormatioii of these words seems to have 

just in the ssme manner a$ our adopiioa of 

CHAP. in. WORSS. 23 

compound Greek words, as we ourselves stood in want 

. of proper tenpis for subjects of which ctur ancestor* 

/ could not form the slightest notion. The Chinese lan~ 

guage possesses, moreover, one advantage; it .can place 

a great number of words before substantives^ as epi- 

thets, and thus incorporate the description of Ihe subject 

mth the word itself, so as to represent it under the 

most varied forms, (See the Syntax.) 

17. A great many compounds, if we may call them 
so, are. also formed, by putting at the end of a string of 
words either J& chay, or teih; as ff ' Ifc ffij ta 
yu teih, a fisherman; ^ ^ $3 tso heae teih, a shoe* 
maker. Whether we denominate these phrases, or 
simple compounds, it is all the same; the idea becomes 
by this process concentrated, thus ^ % cho chay. 
a maker; ^J 3$ hingchay, a waiter. $1 31 
seang puh taou chay, incomprehensible, u* 
$L ^ fa $ irij fifc yew kwei lieu 
teih, irregular; ^ *~g" ^ ^ puh k'hoshay 
tefli, unpardonable. (For the formation of words bj 
annexing $ uA, and ^ ^ s * e see the (Chapter W 

18* A little study of the language soon convinces 
one, that it not merely consists of words, but in a great 
measure of sentences, or phrases, which are used, ae 
our law terms and proverbs. This ought to be kepi ii 
view by the student, and as many of these trite express 
sions committed to memory, as that faculty is abte 
to retain* 

1^ The Chinese have no idea of our grammatical 
distinctions, aor has a singte native writer touched upon 
the subject^ Whatever, therefore, is said in the second 
part of this work must be understood as an attempt to 
place the language under grammatical rules, in order 
to facilitate the study of it to Eumpeans. A word may 
be used as a substantive, adjective, or verb, just as it 
pleases tfc^ speaker or writer, and its position shows in 
what sense it ought to be understood; for instance, jfe 
yu, with, may also signify to give; :ty yih, to oppress, 
may also Be tta disjunctive partite; ^ tsin, mayb^ e 

tlfg 'JtOtm. CHAK I. 

relation,.*)? to approach, or ftea?; > che, may signify trf, 
or toamveat; f^r neang, to lookup, or the preposition 
to, We find r4s0 the same word repeated, when the 
first is a verb, and the second a substantive or adjective, 
for instance jji ^ te te, to treat younger brothers as 
such; ^ .JL 3\ $ she shs fei fei, to declare what 
isrightio be right r id what is V7roug to be wrong: 

^S- ' i& M -S ' mou ^ aoa wo ^ ^ esteem what is 
good rmd hate what is bad, 

20, The Chinese themselves divide all words into 
j| ^ heu tsze, empty ch^ , or jp& ^ tsoo 

tsxe f anxyiaries, and '|f ^ shih tsze$ solid ones; th* 
former are the particles, the latter the otbur pails o| 
speech. These are again subdivided mto .$ 3p. 
living characters, verbs, or ^c '4" Sise tse ? 
ad adjec 

BOOK 11 



1. WE ought -here to ^ premise that the Chinese wifb 
its cognate tongues has no inflexions, and that alt the 
grammatical distinctions, which are thus indicated L* 
other languages, are here conveyed by particles an6 
generic terms. 

2. We suppose that the student is acquainted witb 
general Grammar, and therefore spend no time in defini- 
tions. Whatever is here said points strictly to the pecu* 
liarities of the language, without any attempt at adspt ; 
bg this tongue to tbe Lgititt trremmar* We intend to 

C&AJB. I. 

give the Chinese, as a whole, such as it is > independent 
of any other language, to enable the reader to become 
fully acquainted with its idioms. 


J&. In most instances, the Chinese language leaves 
the article unexpressed: as ^ g ^ j& %, j 
muh tseang tae ch6 tsze leaou, the carpenter has 
brought the table: ft ^ >^v ^ he6 s^ng 
tsae juh ub, the pupil has just entered the house. 
When* however, a stress is laid upon the word, either 
ke, the third persona! pronoun, or %j chay, the 
relative pronoun, or the demonstratives }fc teze, $% 
^ze,or^ pe, are used to indicate it: as Jj Hi f ^P 
^5 l&jL ke 6 pepuhklioshaymeen. the sin oan- 
not be pardoned : ^ ^ ^. fo ke jin hwae 
tub sin, the man harbours malicious intentions: Jfe ^ > 
1ft ?T ~j& & tsze tsze shang k'ho kea yay, this child 
is still praise-worthy: ^f IS ^f> Sfe It hZf * s ^ 
pull ke^ ko, the tree does not bear fruit: ;ffc. j| -^ 
^- H. 1S. pe tse tsing chun sang gow, the woman 
became a widow in her youth: A ^ lit ^ 
^ 1fe ^ Ifr ^ jin chay woo tih gan nJlog jin 
chih boo, IiiAV can the man void of virtue hold an office ? 

4. la the conversational language 2t $9 chay 
ko, and ^ ^ na ko, serve the same purposes. It 
ought to be remarked, that all these pronouns may be 
translated this or that; but still the rule holds good, 
that wherever a definite article is necessary, the above 
words are used. The most frequent term employed in 
books is j ke. 

5. The indefinite article is, in highly finished literary 
works, never expressed; in books wiitten in the conver- 
sational style, and in common parlance it is conveyed, 
though not very frequently ,^>y yih, 'fffi yih ko> 

* ^H yih ko, and ^ yih ko, (an abbreviated 
fomofijj ko;) g 1$ -jfc ^ >7> ^ petfj 
yih kong shale, gave him a pear: ^ ^ ^ 

26 SASS&. oH&r. i. 

& jfc k'han yih ko yen sih telh ncu, he saw a 
beauty: ^ >fgj :$f % yew ko haou e 5 having a 

Sood intention. Almost all the Chinese substantives 
ave their particular numerals, which, put before the 
noun, serve to circumscribe the indefinite article, as 
"~ $5* DL y& chih chuan, a vessel: > -ft ^ 
yih keen sze, a business: ^. ^ ^ yih chun 
k'bw&e sze, a pleasing affair: *% j)jfe j|t yu te 
yih fcaon, an edict. (See the paragraph on numerals.) 


6. Before proceeding further with the noun, we 
must here remark, that there exists a very great differ- 
ence between the conversational style, and works 
strictly literal, which will be amply treated of under the 
Chapter on Style; we shall only observe here, that we 
intend henceforth to distinguish these two modes by 
conv. (conversational,) and lit. (literary.) ' 

7. The genitive is expressed either by position. 
preceding the nominative, or by H che, (lit.) and j$ 
teih, (conv.) l*hus A. 4 jin uh, a man's house: 
^ H theen sing, heaven's stars. It is thus thai 
many compounds are formed, as ^ $r shoo fang, 
book room, a library: ^f ,tjt yu shwuy, rain water. 
Regard to euphony and practice, will teach us whether 
we ought merely fco indicate this case by position, or to 
use ) che, and IHj teih; for one may say, A ]Jt ^ 
jin che uh, and J^ b 3, t'heen che sing, without 
changing the idea. If, however, several words precede, 
these particles must always be used; as ^ 33L ^ 

ta<>u le che ching, the truth of right principles: 

# -jfc A ^ % ^r ywn fei'fhajin 
& woo, it was not the affair of other people: & 
% It H che shen chay che foh, to know the 
happiness of flje good: "^ H * fe A chung kwo 
teih jin, a man of the centra! empire, a Chinese. In 
the colloquial style jfc te, and ^ te, on account 
of sound. ?rft -rften substituted for 


' Every class of words, when placed before the noun, may 
require the genitive particle, just as if they were nouns; x 
9* ft 'ft *t ^ ts6 hing che yang, the man- 
ner of doing any thing: A ^ ^ jin che to, many 
people: H |L > /& shea leang che sin, a good 
aeart^ and similar expressions: (see also the paragraph 
upon the particles ^ che, and jHf teih.) It is well to 
remark also the following formations : ^5 |f$ teeh teih, 
made of iron: Jfi 1$ shih teih, stony: ^ W *niih 
teih, wooden: ^ % seay teih, written. 

8. The dative is seldom expressed. The following 
may he noticed: $ H #. . jlf- ffc e sin me tse joo ? 
we provii : 3 you with fuel and rice: ;$fe 41? ^ A 
she g5n chung jin, to show favour f o all men. In cases 
where emphasis is required, the particle j^ yu, is used; 
*& ^ ^ ^ yu ke tuh, r^ead io him, (this may how- 
ever also signify, cause hn to read:) ^ J88 JL 
^1 fi yu P^ n g yew sfcwo hwa, to speak to a friend; 
^ ^ $L JL A ieih tseeri yu kung jin, to give 
inoney to workmen: ^ ^ % ^ yu gno Mn lae s 
seize and bring him io me: fa heang, ^f yu, anci 
^ yu, (the latter merely on account of the similarity 
of sound) are often used for ^ yu, as in the following 
jjastanceir, ^ ^ Jfa ^p yu gno woo kao, it is JQO- 
thing to me: ^ A Ht ^ 3& 7 u ji woo pe jah^ 
no advantage to men: gj fe fa wn yu gno, ask 
me: fa ifc ^ heang t'ha shwft, tell him: ^ 
^ ^ ^ heang yang shang t'haou, ask the 
Hong-merchants, or demand from them. Speaking to., 
may be expressed by ^ -flfc ^| tuy ta keanar, speak to 
him: ft ^ ^ ho ta shw6, or ^ ^ <|Jt te to 
shwo, tell him^(conv.) JFor, or instead of, is mostly ex- 
pressed by 3fc wei, and occasionally by 4* tae, and 
^ te, as }^ A ^ -j^- wei jin keuen ming, (lit,) 
to sacrifice one's life for men: <fc A $t taejin fce 
to da for one; ^ ^ 18 J^ te kw^kea ch'huh 
leih^ to exert one*s self for the state. The words 
keife, aad 1^ pe, may occasionally serve to 
fee dative. 

9- Theacensatw. is altogether indicated by 

28 CASKS. CHAP. |. 

HOB; the niK however, that it follows the verb, is oc- 
casionally reversed. Thus m.the regular way. 3) 
hw6 le, to obtain profit; A A ^ 1& tt jin jin 
keae ft tsae, erery body has made money. In- 
ifcmces where it is put before tKe verb are, ^t 5" 
4$ ^ ^f ykftsze too fei leaou. all the money is 
spent; f * ' X A ~ HL $t ft rcae pan 
kung jin yth^feae cb chuh. tie ccmpradores and work- 
men were all driven out (See the Syntax.) 

10. The ablative is formed in various ways; thus 
our Jy is expressed by -^fc pe, as ^ A JL P 6 P n 
keen, seen by men ; or by ji e, as W Jj Ht ^ 
e kTh keang tsin, to enter by force; this prep"-itio:i. 
however, more frequently describes the instrumentality, 
like our irith; as Jtt >? jjt A ^ taou sh& jin, to 
kill mea with die sword; H ^ JH A e vm - ^"h 
jiu, to subdue men with kindness, g) yew r is rtot only 
used to indicate the place from whence any tl <ies, 

but ako serves to express our by of tt rac- 

tion, as ft ft ~fa *&. yew van? shang king 
le, managed by the Hong-merchants ; <f ft ft ^ 
yew inun eh 'huh lae, come out at the door; dj J| 

^j R yew yue taou man. from Canton to 

Fokeen province. ^ vu. is also used to express 
ur by, ami tftrovgk ; as ^- ^ sze yu mio, fed 
by the people; and sometimes;, but not often, -J- yu, is 
thus employed, as ^ ^ ^ -J- ^ paou boo 
gno y ping, he protected rrie by soldiers. On account 
of./or, or in lehalfofc is conveyed by |^ ^ei, and Ie6= 
frequently by^Q tae. or ^ te> as J| v jfc Ife wei 
joo tso, I do it on your account- ^ fi $$ X tae 
heung pwan le, I manage it for my brother; ^~ 
^ ft *e tsae hae pa. afraid r.bout the child. 

cr K ^ y^^^?St tsuD ?r aBr l ^ tsze ex - 

ne;KS ^ ^ ^ * kea le lae. come 

ttel- t < t ^ * * 5^ tsze 

t" ae pin. frr- .vent 

JT at, is convey 

S t&Sv. J- ViK ^- yu, df .- bV 

tf Jt -- 

HAP. 1. 5KSRE. 29 

tsaou miih, there is no yerdure or wood on the hill: 
X ft, 7 /v H j& fheen leaner vu jin chc 
sin, heavenly goodness in the human heart; *fe 
^ weikewchoo ke, to seek it in oaeV 
Ji >*t- jjL ^ff che yu che shen, tarest in extreme 
goodness; , S * *5r J* ^ Iten Ife^g 
neen yu ching mow yft, for two years be traded in the 
city. With, is expressed by _Jfe{ yu ? and timg, as 
J^ JV ^B ^2 yn jin seang ho, to live peaceably 
Trith people; A) ^ JiJ \ tucgjoo ch'huh wae, 
to go afcvr.-aJ. ;vith you: ^ kea? is used ic the same 
manner. . v.sed before words expressing time, 

are generally n as -jf- >^ :i ^ ^ ^ 

^ Ht sliih yew uA tsae seun show fang yuhl on the 
12th year he went to inspect the districts and mountains ; 
tp " 8 & ^ *fr tseih 3^ ch'huh sing ching, 
on that very day he left the provincial city. The use of 
^ yu, to express *n is by no means of frequent 

1 1 . The vocative is cither not expressed at all, as 
^ 3%T %* lao^ yay lae, come here, sir ! or by ^ 
yay, after the word, as ^ ^fc. ^ yu yay lae, come 
hither Yu ! or by ^ o, as ^5 ^ f^ lang keun o. 
oh my husband ! In conversation uj va ? is sometimes 
.put after the word, to indicate this case; Jj^ yu> and 

?jt. e, are likewise used in this manner in good wri- 
tings: ^ vf- gae}^a ? and Ff hen, are frequently used 
in exclamations, .and -j^ tsae, at the end of a sentence. 
(See the paragraph on interjections.) 

12. The student will readily perceive, that the Chi- 
nese cases, as given above, do not exactly correspond 
with ours, but further study will teach him where 
to use these particles, and where to omit them, whilst 
it will also :rd him in the construction of seiner 


13, Chinese nouns, grammatically considered, have 
no gender; but whenever the saUoe of things is pointed 
out. there are generic terms to convey tihe sane: t\v 


man beings, )&> nan, and $- neu, express male and fe- 
male; for animals generally, & kung, and -#* moo; for 
cattle in particular, $L mow, and >ffc pin; for birds, %JL 
heung, and Jft. tsze; for inanimate things, (9j kang. 
[nasculine, and ^ jow, feminine: j?L keen, and $$ 
kwao, or )^ ym, and ]5 ya?ig, for the male and female 
principles of nature, have their origin in the popular 
idea, fnai sex pervades the universe, and that all inan- 
imate things partake either of one or the other quality. 

14, The words above mentioned are never added to 
the substantive, unless with a view express the gender; 
as ^ ke, a fowl; || ^ ke kung, acock; ^ -Jg- 
be mow, a hen; & jfy ^ & Wt ^ fr & % 
tsze iween yang we heaou she pin mow chay, I do not yet 
know whether these sheep are ewes or rams; i 

^ ^t -^ sang tsze nan neu ko yih, he brought 
forth children, onfc son and one daughter. The appli- 
cation of these characters is very easy; they seldom oc- 
cur, and only when it is a matter of importance, 
that the gender should bs known. 


15. Every Chinese noun may be expressive of tbe 
plural as well as the singular, thus J\^ jiu, may be a 
man, and in en; ^ neu, may he a ox, atid oxen; 4f it 
heo skng, disciple, or disciples. Unless it be distinctly 
indicated that a wcrd has a plural signification it is left 
doubtful. The plural form of the noun is pointed out, 
when necessary, by the use of particles: we shall here 
enumerate the particles which are used for the purpose, 
beginning with the most common, and afterwards ex- 
plaining them. ^ *&ng, #9 mun, ^ P^.ifl ^J 

"^ tsaou, -j^- tse, ^sd ^ chow, which a*e put after 
&e substantive: so also ^ k5, fj| choo. ? jl. chung, 
t* fan, and j| shoe; sil of which are put bfore tbe 
:o6iUt, feud are strrctfy shaking collective adjectives, 
though used to convey the sense of the plural; so also 
l<eae, j^f ban^ ^ heu, and ^ too ; oak these 
erally follow. 
. Chiawaa feadb 


plural particles; in good Writings they ate still more 
scarce. IB many instances, t^here we should rssreiSer 
them indispensably necessary, the genius of the C. hinsse 
language, does not demand them at all; and on the other 
hand, they are sometimes used, where they appeal- to us 

18. The most common plural ^article is ^ t&ng, 
as A, <^ jin t&ug, men: when two or three subje'cts 
are enumerated, one after the other, this particle is affix* 
d to the last: as & A X ft ^ nuiig 1 foo kui>g 
^Iseang t^ng, agrieulturists and artisans: $ ^/ ^ 
^t 1 A, -? P^ en pi n g w & n woo, jshang 1 jin tang, 
soldiers, civilians, military officers, and merchants, (the 
and is always left ouU) $^ mun, is more frequently 
used with the personal pronouns, as 3$ ^ g*to mum, ' wsj 
^ '1W jo raun, you; sometimes in conversation it is 
annexed to substantives: ^ pei, is employed when u 
class is to be indicated, as g, ^ 6pei, th wicked; 
"^' ^ tseen peijvirid >$t ^ how pet, predecessors, 
and successors; ^ || ^ ^ wang e die pei, the 
unjust; |^_^ ^ X tung pei ehe jin, equals; f 
tsaouVand^S luy, are nearly of tbe same import as ^ 
pel, but not so frequently used; thus * ^ kwan 
Isaou, means officer^ ; ar*d H |^ fei luy, vagabonds: 
1^- tse, and i^ chow, indicate likewise classes, 
and kinds, companies; -g- ^ WO o tse, we, is used by 
good writers. 

). ^ Chung is very frequently used, as |^ 
]tf chung sbang, all the merchants, or the merchants: 
1 i chung sing, all living things, or .ereatiires, 
mankind, |i choo, is also corot?on, a. ^ 5fe i 
l fi i -" '4Ht jSi chuo seen sang keae woo piag', the tea- 
chers are all well; ^ % choo ivith, all things, things-' 
So also 4^ k6, as ^ A kojin, every man, or men; 
-^ ^ k6 choo, every place, or places:^ slioo, has 
nearly the same signification, as f| choo, though less 
frequently used, as ^S i: shoo sze, scholars; %, fan > 
is more coiimion, asjl A fan jin, all men, or men; /C 
fan, is often preceded by $& choo, as JL *$) fsm 
wuk thir>g& t or ^ ;t ?% ff dioo fa^ wub hteo 


^ Keae, and >&p to, frequently occur m good 
Writings as well as in conversation: as A ^f j& :C 
jin keae ehe cbe, all men know it; it, -? Sf~ 3? %* 
foo tsze keae hing tih, father and son both practiced vir- 
tue; ift jt <f f t. jfc foo neu keae tae 
mei mow, the women were all beautiful ; $} $L %$ 

>f> ^fc p&ng yew too pub tsae, the friends are all ab- 
sent; 4ft keu, is most frequently found in literary com- 
position, as /H fft % W M > ^ y ew so 
sze wuhkeu puh show Jbe received none of the things 
that were given; ^ ^ ^ ^ mcen yang keu sze, 
all the sheep died; ^ %$ 1jC 4-" ^ eu , n ^ e ^ ett 
tseuen, the weapons were sli prepared. ^ Han, is 
less frequent, as ^ fy ^ ^ joo han tsung che, the 
scholars all followed him, 

20. There are a. variety of other modes of expressing 
the plural: by repetition, as ^ & kea kca, every fami- 
ly, families; g jihjih, every day, or daily. By the 
word j to, many, as ^* g A ^ tfe ^ ^ 
chung kwo jin to ch'huh wae fang, many Chinese go to 
foreign countries ; or by the numerals Jj pih f and H 
wan, (but ^ tseen, less frequently,) BS lg *Jr pih 
kwah/ihe Mandariiis ; ^ ^ pih pwan, various ways; 

H ^S waatih, all virtues, or virtues, || -^ wan she, 
for many ages; ^ ^ tseen ke, a variety of plans. 
There are some peculiar forms of expression, as ^ ^ 
sze hae, four seas, or the seas; i 3? woo fang, the 
five points, or all points; J. ^ woo ping, the ele- 
ments; i ^ woo lun the relations of life; JL ^_ 
woo kuh, the various kinds of grain; JL ^ wootseo, 
the different ranks of nobility; Jt ^ woo we, the five, 
or various tastes : because the Chinese, either in reality 
or imagination, assume them to be so many in number. 
Such are also jL ^ kew chow, the nine parts of the 
world, or the whole globe; $U % k ew J ew > creatures, 
&c. For excess and multitude, ^ keun, ^ yun, 
and $r fuug, are often used, as ^ yV keun jin, many 
met*.; $& $i *j $i chueu chih yuB tseih, the vessels 
assembled irferowds; '^ |^ ^ j$t toau tsih fnng 
',::,% the thieves rose up, as thick as bees : we find also, 

H4f>. 1, JSUMSEB, 

jiu joo iin, or ^u & joe sa, men lifco threats 
or hills, that is in great multitudes; or shorter without 
-$$ joo, 6s JL li Jin san, or X $$ j* u ^ ae ? mejl *** con- 
siderable numbers, like hills ami seas. Some, the Chi- 
nese express by j| soo, and H' ke, a$ ^ %} ke kea 
some sentences, and Ijfc. JJ soo jKh, several days. 

21. An idiomatic peculiarity, which the Chinese has 
in common with the Japanese, is the addition of a ge- 
neric term to various nouns, for the sake of enumeration, 
which we may compare to mil habit of sayitig heads of 
oattle, *?w?m of silk, sheet* of paper, &c, But eipres* 
sioHS of this kind are not of frequent occurrence witn us; 
whilst in Chinese few isoims are found to which one* 
two, or even three af these terms isuot applicable* We 
shall here quota the most coimacm. 

ii Ko, is applied to a great variety of soufig, espe* 
eiallyin conversation; when written in the above man* 
ner, it stands ibr living beings, but for inanimate things 
it changes into ^ ko 3 or the abbreviated fonn ^ ko; 
fewwriters> however, make this grammatical dk l .-.*- 
tioin Thus 1SJ X yihko jin, one man; '. -|g 
^aa ko pan, three planks; . >f-/g^wsoko ping, 
*ive cakes. 

4 Chih, is applied to vessels, animals, and si 
objects; as m? ^.|&&ze chih cliuen, or|& 1RI 
chuen sse cliih, four ships; Z ^ ^ san chihyatig 
three sheep; JL ^ % woo chih cho, five tables. 

%\ Tuy,and ^ shwang, are used with all the nouns, 
that can be arranged in pairs ; as ^ ^[ yih tuy heae, 
a pair of shoes; ^ ^ yih shwang wS, a pair oi 
stockings: and further, as in other languages. 

j}4 Chang, is used for every thing that can be spread 
out; as ^ ^yihchang ehe, a sheet of paper; ^-* 

$k ^ ^ yih changk&oushe, aproefematioB,(that 
is, a paper containing one;) ^ pg ^ yih chang 
mun ]een, a door screen. 

^> !Pa 5 >^ nsodfor things that have a handle; as 
7- IS fl yih pa taou, a sword; ^ j& saou pa, a 
besom, and a variety of others. 

^jL Che. is. used for things that are straight, in thr 


of Branches^ as %$i Ht y& che peen, a whip; 
"LUT y& che chub, a flute. 

$fc Teaou, very much resembles the former, in its 
use, as ^ gj| yih teaou shing, a cord; f^ ^ 
yth teaou ho, a river, &c. 

8H Keen, is used for objects that comprehend space, 
&s buildings of every description: thus 3. $] ^ san 
Keen Sh, three houses. 

^ Tso, BOW and then, also $f tso, designates places, 
as M. ^5 yih tsoching, ac%; Z Jl 2> sari tea-jib, 
three towns. 

tfj* Fuh s or X peih, are used for pieces, or parts; as 

y jjf yih pe9i poo, a piece of cloth, rt l lg ^ urh 
fuh hwa, two pictures^ 

$ Keen, serves to enumerate things m general, as 
""" ^ yih keen sze, or ^ ff sze keen, an affair; 
gan keen, a case in law- in the former in- 
chun, is often used. This particle is like 
ko, arid^ ehih, and is often promiscuously em- 
ployed; as 'ft ify yih keen san, a jacket; % ff -wuh 
keen, things; ^ ft ho keen, goods, &c. 
^S!f Foo, means a set, a lot; as $ &. & yih foo 
Khe keu t a set of instruments, or utensils. 

$% Kwae, is used for pieces, or any thing substantial 

and sol id fas ^>5 yihkwaebbih, a stone: S j^ 

j^sankwae yin, three doUars; jg twan, @j and yucm, 

are used for globular things; and^ fang, for pk--.-es; 

as /-^ ^ ^ ^ yih faog choo juh, a piece of J.H?:!;. 

W* Cbh\, a gust, a dash, a beam; as )*4 JL y2i 
chin fung f , a gust of wind; Rfc j& yih chin kwang, 
a beam of light; ^ $$ yih chin yen, a puff of 
smoke: ^ chang. is used nearly in the same man- 
ner; as . ^ 'j- yih chang woo, a mist; tfjfr g 
yih chang yu, a shower of rain. 

K Paou, is used for bundles, as ^ -fe yih 
paorv rrseea hwa, a bale of cotton; t ^yi 
che 5 a bundle of paper; so also #L cha, as 
yih cba peih, a bundle of pencils ; ^L ^ jib 
che, a bundle of paper: so also j^. so, 

C Kea. for frames and machiner as $i ^ 

CHAK -K NtTMBgU. 35 

ih kea shwuy keu, a firfe. engine; *j? ^ | 
swan pwan,.an abacus. 

* Tan> for things of weight and burdens; as 
fa ^F yih tan hingle, a load of baggage 4f |[ 
yih tan soo tsae, a load of vegetables 

J?& Teen, for small things, drops, &,?., as f^ 
yih teen she, a moment of time;.*- |fg g yih tee** 
rain, a drop of ink. 

)?C Twan, indicates parts, and sentences; as g. 
^j- ^ yihtwansin wan, a piece of news; !L >fc 
yih twan te, a part of land. 

4jf Kwan, enunserates things that are hollow; as 
^ Ipt yih kwan. peih r a pencil; ^ ^"'3^b. 
bwah seaou, a pipe 

|^ Kwan, tke4$c teaou, enumerates law$ 5 -pip-jsceptg.- 
potitions, business, affaire, &c. as |gt ^ yih kw 
sze, an affair;^ >ff -s ^ tsow tsingyih kwan, 

Jfe Koo, for shares and parts; as |_ i ^ 
sange, a share in some trading concern: 
yih koo shing, a bundle of twine 

-ft Wei, and & ming, are used &r enumerating hu- 
man beings; the former, however, is mainly confined to 
persons of raiik; while \J yuen, is applied to gc^en> 
meat officers. For instance ^r j/% E9 -^ fan r^acfii 
szemiiig, four foreign sailors; J$ ^ ^ ffeseangkung 
san wei, three gentlemen; X *l S ^-w^n kwan 
yuen, ttirec civilians; ^L wei, is^ also used for 
as ^L 1i paou wei, a cannon. 
^ TsSiBg,is used for a layer, a story, a set ; as /f 
|g; y^b tsSing che, a sheet of paper ; yf j?L .. yih ts&ng 
<ira- t a layer oftSles.^ So also 't chung, for duplicates, 
or terraces; as ^ ^ F9 urh chung mun, the second 
daor; ^ tfi yitr chung san, the first of a series of hijjs. 

Jf Peen, signifies a slice, a flake, a bit; % ^ yih 
peen seu^, a flake of snow; ^ Jf &- yib piiem eh6 ; a 
bit of paper; - -~ ft 1% yili|K^n.8iu, a note. 

$| Ko, as well as & leih, are used For gr 
as ^ ^ yih ko chin cboo r -fe peaii: 
, a ria o 


Taou,is used for a whole; as ^ ^L JJJL yih 
e ftib, a suit of clothes; %? ^ yih taou shoo, 
s -whole work: >fc~ pun, and^ peeih are used exclusive- 
ly for books and papers ; fy keu, for enumerating sen- 
tences &nd phrascB; yjf, taou, and f te, for edicts and 
states papers; as ||- TJJ& ^ yu teg san taou, three 
gdigte; "g show, is applied to odes; as ~f(~ ^ yih 
show she, a piece of poetry : |[ yfc, is used occasionally 
for TtKK&s and papers ; HS f[ ^ ^ yih yS che t&een. 
a feund^ 0f gilt paper: ^ fuog, for enumerating letters: 
as if f| yih fung gin, one letter. 

^ Kewn, and ^lio, for congregated numbers; as -^ t 
ijz $; yihkeun neaou, a covey of birds; ^ g| ^ 
yib feo fei t'hoo, a company of vagabonds. 

1 ling, is employed for carriages and caps: and 
^ ckuec, for rows and files ; as - *p -Jc qp yih chueu 
ping tipg, a ftle of soldiers: Jfe dbin, or.^choo, for 
trees v^ ko, for plants: ^. shing, and |^ leaug, fur car^ 
riages and sedan chairs:^ tnow, for plots of Isoid et 
groimd;^ ling, for ccats or jackets:^ t'iow, and V 
kl*QW,<br aoimalsor cattle: the latter also for swords, 
and the former for affairs.; as |g ^ ^ yib t*how 
c^'hiia sze, a matrimonial affair: E peih^ for Jfeorses: -^ 
poo, for volumes, divisions: ]ff *;?.ou, for quiies of paper 
;J$ man, for guns: 'M tsefe, for any thing jointed: 
, for things witta smooth surface; as -^ i^ 
5n$eti kifig^ three looking glasses: jf& te^, for sticking 
es ; a$ \E ,tt ^* || san tea kaou jo, three plas- 
w^n, for -enumerating cash: ^ tsan, for meals; 
as - - * ^yih tan fa 5 a meal of lice: ^c ching, for 
lausicaftunes: $& <:huh, of polls: ^hw<i, for strokes: 7; 
tea, for blo^s:^- hang, for rows and columns :^t ehoo* 
tpr iaceDSe sticks: l^) hwuy, for parts, times: tl seun, 
for decades: ^ tae, for stages :^mei, orating, for 
pieces of fnfc: ^ kan, for bamboos: ^ chih, fer eases cf 
books:*:; wiln, for rolls of silk: /C wei, for fishes, and 
other ar^mals; Mi keuh, for chess boards or affairs: jfL 
ke\^\ ?>r rollg, books, chapters, &c. jfe. tsan v for 
me .2y fbnued things ; lk Ieag, for silver : 

tr. ivosmm 37 

22. The reader will no doubt perceive that most of 
these terms are attached to nouns, to which they bear 
some relation, either in shape or quaiiiy* and a frequent 
perusal of the 'foregoing paragraphs will enable the stu- 
dent to make a right use of them. We may add, how- 
ever, that they form an essential part of the language* 
and to omit them, when necessary, would be as great an 
offence against grammar, as to dispense with our articles 
and prepositions, when the construction calls for them, 
Several nouns take a variety of numerals, and in most 
instances tleir leaning is thereby modified. But en* 
phony, and the structure .of the language, often rec; 
them* where there exists no apparent necessity. The 
Chinese say, foriustaace, ^ /,' poo 'peiL 'for cioih: 
ft $t fc JL lefiwei jiuheuag, benevolent brethren, 
or gentlemen, &c.' In most cases, hoivever, 
stnct enumeration of the subjegi is not 


TRB A2>ia^iVS- ..~ 

1 . Ta E recsark previously made, that Chinese wor<fe 
do not exactly belong, to ot*e particular class, applies 
also to the adjectire;' tfeu*Afa ? great, and/!8eaou, 
small, though generally used a& adjectives, may f>cea- 
sionally be changed into nouoti, as Jt JL ke to, its 
greatness; ^t ^ keseaou, its littleness; o also into 
verbs; as ^ . ta che, to enkrge it, Sec. On the oAer 
haud, many uouii:i occasionally assume tiie shape of ad- 
jectives by being placet before other substantives, as 
^ ^ t'Kfeea chaoi>, H*e c^sfeal dynasty, ^ ^ ehr 
wuh, worfdly things g %. ^ che *$h Jia, vary 


2. - It is peculiar to the Chinese language to unite a 
great many words before nouns, wfcieb then assume the 
nature of adjectives; as Jl ^ ^ i& A fan yew ping 
teih Jin, *11 the sick; $ ft & '* * ' y ^ % 
yew ke caa e chuen mow yih cne tsih, the duty of insti- 
tuting enquiries into the trade of foreign vessels ; all the 
words are here placed hi relation to J| tsih, as if they 
were its epithets. 

3. Much of the signification of adjectives depends 
upon their position. The common mode is to place 
them before the Boun ; as ^ A baou jin, a good man ; 
if two or three precede, they do not require a connective 
particle; as^ J*,&shenleang min, virtuous people; J^ 
.'Sfe vlt ;& tneiyen tseih nju, a beautiful modest wo* 
man. Where there are more than two adjectives, fc 
ehe, generally intervenes between them and , the sub* 
stantive; |t M #\ ^ ^ 1? g paouyole hae cbe 
kwan yueti, cruel and annoying officers. Two adjec- 
tires put together have rf ten ^ teih, or chay, at the 
end; as J| )B % yaou yung teih, needful; j jj^ % 
be yea chajr, very severe. 

4. Wtenevcr the substantive verb is implied, adjec- 
tivesare put after the aoun; as A 3& fa haou, be is a 
good man; Hi 3jfe sing m^ng. he is of a. savage nature. 
Phrases Kfce the following are u~e{iK.yit ; as j^ jfe & 
;fc. t ? h^i teche ta, the greatness .of heaven and earth; 
& ii ^ ^ sin leang che kwan, the extent f gene- 

-Iu these cases the adjective by its position as 
*he nature of a aoun, as hinted above. The for* 
of epithets like $ $ nuih teih, woodea; : 

ir kin teih, goidten; and A $ t'heeja tefla, he 

^ very common. 


. We know f no language that adopts so 
es of expressing the degrees of comparison, as She 
i.e$-e. For tbe benefit, of the reader we shall here 
^^npifculate all that has oiste under our observafioa^ 
&hd trtistiie will endeavour to femilis^ixe himself 


6. Our more is expressed byjtkang; as Jt | 
Itmg mei, more beautiful ; when two objects are coin* 
pared with each other the latter is preceded by &;pe 
to compare; as . jJt # )*- 4l * g. It teze 
aeu pe pe ueu k&ng mei, this woman is more beautiful 
tfean that : jS kSng, is however, occasionally omitted; 
a& 3% )t ik $$ --^.gnopejoohaouyih seay^lam 
ihe? better tban you ; or jgfkeaou, is annexed ; as -Jfc 

A ^ ^ .j. ^ gno pe keaou joo k^ng baou ? I am 
better than yom Sometimes k&ng is preceded by 

* % seang tay ; as >^ ^ ^g ^ ^ ^^ 300 gno 
seaag tuy, gno k&ng haoti, compared with each other, 
I am better than you; the same idea is also conveyed 
by ^L iSJ keaou tuy. Furthermore, the word Jt k^ng 
is found in phrases like the following; as Jt ^f ^ j| 
kSngyewsbin yen, still more excessive; ^ j ^ Jf 
pe shang kang fei,. he is still more fat; ^ ^ : f_ ij 

}& )fe P e * b^ e ^^ n ^ aou ^ wo * sze > that is much better 
than this. Ihere are also instances where jJtkSng, k 
followed by^yu; as f Sf. $:&&&$+ 
W kin neen che kuh Mng fung shing yu tseen neen teih, 
the grain of this year is more abundant than the former 
year; or a phrase like the following may be formed: 
^tfiM^^^MM5t kin waii ho cha Hng tsaou, 
shih fan chp kwo, we have taken tea earlier this even- 
ing, and eaten rice rater. 

7. Besides what has been already said it will be 
well to notice the fallowing modes in which ? pe, is 
used ; as $K jt jfe ^ ne pe t'ha kaoii, you are taller 
than he ; ^ fa ^C *j^ ^ tsew T pe shwu}^ haou to. 
wine is much better than water; x g VC 7^ ^ j^ 
^L ^ ji kung tseang pe puh tih mrag foo che yung. 

the usefulness of the mechanic is not to be compared 
with that of the husbandman; ^ *$t >t J^ ^ ^ 
pub kan pe shing cluing hwa t by no mean superior to 
the central flowery nation ; ^ ^fc JjS f M && 
chay ko pe na ko yu fa haou, this i& much "-beUer than 
::-.;i,t , ^Jt 1^ ^ ?- ^ ^T ^ san shang ta pan puh k*ho 
pe, a pnvafe j^crchc,Titis inferior to tie chief of a fac- 


40 cmiPAs&mB.. OTAF, v*. 

ehay ko pe na ko yew ltata, this is better 
that : isc keaeu, is often used in the following 
as If 4$L |S tsuy keaon k'hingv a lighter critae ; & Q 
JS_ J ttrh muh feeaou kin, ear and eyes are very Dear : 
f$L ^1 M- Hi teen ke keaou kwau* to have the term 
more extended ; J ^ * ^ ^L j^ keaou tseen yew 
keeEWoo ts&ng, compared with what it was before, it 
Jbas been rather less thai* increased. 

8. ^ Yu, as well as \^ kwo, aire often used to con- 
vey the idea of more: as^Jt'^ heen yu Yu,.tncre. 
excellent than Yu ; -^ ^ Jjj^ kwei yu yin- n'ior^ va 
able than silver; jfL ^ -S ^ jSt ^^ weyr^ 

yu tsze she chay. it has never been worse than at LU<- 
present time. Instances of \& kwo> are ^k ^?- ^ 3 
joo haou kwo g better than myself; or with 

jfc yu> as fy *j& ^jft ^ ,f c j oo haou kwo yu gno, the 
same;. ;]>yg j&. ^jjL sea^u kwo yu e, less than ananty 

* S 3r&1&\ It * * 4> $1 -^ J 3- 

ke tfli hing hwo he ta kwo, hwo he seaoa kwo yu keun 
tsze, his virtuous actions are more or less than those of 
the superior man ; ^ ^ *& ]&, \ {ghwan yaou 
haon kwo chay ko, he wants it still better than this. 
It is also occasionally followed by ifc yu shin, as 
^ ^T -& i $& 1& ke wang hing kwo yue yu 
shir?, his worthless conduct is still more outrageous; or 
preceded by ^ mo 5 as ^ jA/ i ^ jfc X kaoo 
san mokwoyu ilieen. iliere are no a ills higher tban 
the heavens '> $ &, 3f P^ twx> p>v;in iseer, not 
more than half a year; ^g -^ ^ /^cbe shth kwo .j in. 
wiser than the generality of men. 

9. ^ Yu^ better, is often used to designate the com- 
parative degree ; as jH ^ yu nan, more difficult ; -jfa ^ 
jj *$L hang chuen yu kwae, he sailed faster ; ^ ^f 
1$ ^ y u }" u ^ ie11 y^ n ? ^ e ^ r & an boasting : it is* also 
used withjfiRZ Ma, .after it ; as ^r ^ ^S Jg yu kea seay 
yip, Btill more dissolute: and riot imfrequemtly repeated, 
HS ^ i & $r ^ry^w sin yu yu, still more sorrowful, ot 
^iterated in the following manner ; as ^ *|fc jfe $ y* - 
hwae yu e, the -quicker *-hfe easier ; ^ X<|r-i|Tu kew yu 


nan, the longei th 

^ ^ 3L yii teia y u tlmnar, t?ri y pfth ciie, the 
the effort and exertion, the le^s Ae chance of attaining 
the object: ft yew, sometimes oct*;-T% as ;& if >j& 
Vhofcwae, still more strange; ffe g j ^ y * yew 
shen, his fepeeeh was still mor .complete; 4^ "is JjL 
3- fa S ^ '-tfe wejook%w)f r^echeyewsfcing 
chay yay, there is fcotkmg like tfe Confaeiu 
fallness, Ifi this sense, on acceuot of the 
of the s^nnd, $jt yu, is now and then iised; we meet 
wiih^f yih;a ^^ih shinv more : exteasiTely; 
^ yfe shen, more exc'dlent; ^ ^ :; ife A i^ ^ |g 
k'heu shing yihyuen urh jib mwan, fee jyuvr^ycwi sepa- 
rate yourself iro^.; the sages, the m<^$ ^ou *nU b*f purfed 
up. ^ YuS* is also used in this mim* 1 1\ s ^' ^- yut 
haou. better j ^ |% ^f ^ yu^ twig jufe ti 9 the 
he prospers the more he gives. It has also $!r f&, as a 
fix; as M & iS- yug fi haou^ much better; ^^ 
3 1 yih fS haou leaou, still better* - ^. || fi ylti ft & 
meen, still more respectable. J^-^r Shing yn, is afeo 
usedforr/tdr^/as J^ ^ ^| jfe W 1^ JiiS shing yu 
pug kwang pih pei, he light of the mdo is a hundred 
times brighter than that of the fire*fly v So also, but 
seldom, jt yew. as lit Xj^-tsze yew haou, this is 

10. To conij.are whole senteBces^ tiing, is used; 
as .If. ft >p ^ f' ning sze pCth k'hopei ie s it i? 
better to die tihan to deny one's principles;^ ir ^: 
^ ^ If ^ K, ningk'ho show pin, pfthb'ho kow 
tseu, it is better to atifler poverty, than to purloin; jg 
$ ^ & 5jf 1fe"lc,.yu ke cliay yay, nine keen, 
in ceremonies, it is better to be economical^ than pr<>" 
feBe;f Jf flt * ^ ^ T . * -fc ning fc'ho 
siti ke yew, puh k'hp sin ke woo* it is better to believe IB 
its existence, than to believe in its non-ex'Stence. 

II. >2 Jo. ./, is often used in comparisons, in various 
ways; as ffi i9 ^ Jtu vl 1H. ^ na ko pah joo chay 
ko haou, that is not so go*Ki as this; 53 ^ ^ ^ 3^ 
pa p8h joo hoo maag, ilie leopard is not so ferocious a<- 
x yib 

CHAP. n. 

y^i. j* to if the water became still deeper, 
the iks i -still crtlpp* ^ Yih> is no v* and then used 
fanwre. B i*i f: J[ Ife -#^JzL ^ $r joo seu yih 
Jbeaou,joQ:heiiyih%uQg, wtuterfhan SBOW, and red- 
der .than IMood; ; -*5 3$ $& puhjoo Vhin Jaou. no- 
iMng Kke diligent eSbtt: in this case it is used syno- 
nymously with ^ 16, which is often preceded by the 
negative partible j| mo; as^ ^ 1f Jt .-'& jo 
sxe $ there is nothing better than to die together. 
teiiees of the latter description are of frequent 
yence;(see also the 4*egative particles,) as ^ jfc 
riio tsze yew shin, nothing" exceeding this, or 
-this: Jt A 3& ^m&tachekung, no greater merits- 
J^ 3$ Jfr ^ {^HjoopuhLwang, we !rad better not go; 
'* * 2t T- : ^ -H yu ke che taou, grift joo' 
piih taou, it is better not to come at all, than to come late, 
12. Of tne various ways m which our word more 
is expressed, notice the following:^ ^ ^ tosanfun, 
tliree parts more; -f- $ -^ &hih to rieen, more 
than ten years; t & ^ ^iih lae neen, ten years 
-n>ore; ^ X kaou yih clrih, hi|hei one covid; ^L 
*-* if" twan yih tsun,. shorter one inch; ^ T 7 ^ j^ 
pub hea wan Kin, not less than ten -thousand taels; -f 
% ^r A shthyew yti jjn, more than ten men; -g- 
^ ffe A pb yew^yu jiu, mi>re thai* one hundred men. 
The comparator is also occastcaaally iudit;ate3 : by an 
interrogative pronoun; as 3t i ^L ^ seen sftng shiih 
heen, who is wier than you, Sir. As comparafees, 
the following phrases may be cited: .Jt J^ 7 |&. : yu0i> 
shing peih pe, a hundj^ times &*>re distant If ^ ^ 
3T* - ^L I ^ >f - *t aE.twy teeih tih yew 
shan yih pwim kamr, yew hae yih pwan sbia, crimes ac 
curaulated as tigh asmountams, and as deep as seas 
2/L Hwang, frequently occurs to denote, how much 
stored as >JL ^f p .^ hwang chmig two hoo, how 
much more tbe central empire ? JL -3> U : '}5 >JL ^ 
A ^ 9L J^ % ^ ^t'been tseaypuh wei, urhyu jia 
fcoo, hwang yu kwei hoo, heaven is not adverse, how 
much less men, and still less^spirits^ $i Shin, is used 
iJMhe 9&c& >ense t but less frequsstly; as 


shin tszeyewteae, how much more -he: who has talents? 
$1 H shin yu, how much mare it may be saidf 
Ttte reader mil easily infer from what has been said 
the richness of the Chinese language in this particular* 
and an attentive reading of the above paragraphs, will 
enable him to ..comprehend the great variety of ways 
by which the comparative is expressed. 

13. The Chinese have maBy words Jike oof mr^ 

^ tsuy, siring shor^&t ts^g, has, and J| tsin, 
some of wnich ais placed .befbre the adjectives^ and some 
after 1hem Thus J. $ ehe sirii>g^ extremely sacred^ 
^ i? ieih haou, very good; ^ Jf ^ ;^ show J3^ 
keih e, very much disgraced: Jf ^i 6 t^yung ttiing 
e keihy^ery brave; ^ # ^ S teaou fe'hoofeeUi shin s 
he experienced intenae aufierijig; ^ ^ teay she 
tremely excellent; ^ ^ 4fc H. ^. cietib yay e 
eeedingly virtuous^ |f ^ J & Sm:die,<3ia ya 
respectful ;^ ^15. M .gae Vjissg die 

ffyp8ififiil> ^ fi ^ ^hea^fl^cbe keib,he 
joyed great hi^pmess; ^. ^ tsujr lo, ^ery much 
^ ^ jf ^uy kwan km yaou d" thd h%best 
ance; fa 'fa tsuy .seen, the fhsfc ^. H ^ ' tsuy wef 
t yih f the yery first; SRrJIt^ j& hing seas^tsuy 
feeih, an exceedingly flourishiag condition; ]k ~vb & 
^ ^ fi tsuy kaou cfee yew luh eh'hih, the highest 
is five covids; ^ jt; shin s&e, very ri^it; ^ if shin: 
haou, very ..good; # ^g ^ ^Lpfife ining che shin, 
very dark; ^T ^ S ^ Vho-gae shin e, very ami- 
able; Si 8 S ^ Wr ^ tsung ming shin puh 
shin^ his intelligence is^uite iitjsurpassabfe; H fe 
^ 3& w** sSralim.kfih> extremely bettutifal. Jssteaot 
of ^ shin % 31 shin $ ig sometimes used, from the resent 
blanceofsoundzas JE_ f sliiuchung, very important- ^ 
siiin wei klio liSn, very detestable; 
8^ 4 ytngj very 

44 OTraUATnra CHAP. 

tsin yu* me first. The examples of / shoo, are ^ ^ 
shoe to, veiy many; jji JS- shooe, very extraordinary: 
~ shooweihwS yih, very dissimilar;^, 


seo tswsg, very neglectful; the latter instances are 
of frequent occurrence in edicts. ^ Ifth tse, occur*? 
less frequently, and then generally in company with 
rhe r orL k'hae; asf^L ^ ^ Hf kliae tseg heaou *y\i, 
Very digtinct orders. In edicts we skc find ^ tsung, 
H- ke, and^ s&n> ueA to exp^ss the superlative de* 
gree: thus ^i If % ^ tsung chujig kew pan, ver/ 
severely frosecuted ; ^' ff k ; *yrt:, ^ery . sirict;Jf#|iy| 
li5 le sin yen, the new laws are very rigorous, ^ft. H^n, 
is iweii in roaversation ; as 4 V ^|- ^l^ng tih ban, V.TV 
; :^ ^f| ^ haou lib h&n, ver) giH'd. is its *v*d 
Ji uin. is occasionally used, on account of the similar^ 
^T of sound 

1 1,, There are various other modes of expressing 
the superlative degree, as fhae; thus & % tTiae to f 
too inuch;iB} JL ^i 7^ ho t'hae woo le, how v ery 
mde \ $r Iff JL ^8 woo tsin t ? has shin, very unkind; 
,^S '- ^T '*< & tlh hing t'hae two, very virtuous, A 
Ta, is now and then used in the same manner; as;g 
fc.-fr m yew ta fun peg, or Jt J, H.ta.pfib 
scang t'huiig, very different, ^ Te 
occurs, as ^ ^ ts yih nieaon, very Ssc^llent 
7ft ting, ss J| iJ- ting haou, very good; also Jt 
as X ^- shanghaou, very good; or J~ ^ shacg 
yih % t^ng haou. good in the highest degree; ^ jj^ ^ 
$*- tih 'she piih haou, very bad. 

15.. ^L i^eang 5 is likewise used, b^t auly ia a few 
install c^s; as ft j&. lea-ng k^w, fer a coafflaernhbe 
lang to, at good mBrsy Ifeiis also 1^ 
heu kew, very long: or^ % heu to, 
^? heu shaou, very few, $fr Haoa, is 
in the same masmer; j^ j^F 5L isaou kew, a goo<| 
while; and more frequently fc cenve^ation; as if Jfc 
ptth, and less frequently jfr J!t. haoii snufa: ifauft 
-I ham p6b ping gaw 3 very peaceful; 
pub bo mab, esceediugh 

CHAJP, II. SUpttajUATlVS* 45 

The idea of the superlative is afco .eiqi&essed by the re- 
petition of the adjective; as j| Tl '.kaw> kaoV very 
high ; P3 3$ ifiing raing, very bright: or by aJdi% some 
noun that possesses the quality indicated by the /adjee* 
live ia the highest degree: as A H t'heea haoii, as high 
asheavea^ very high; ^ JL-yen shin, as deep as the 
abyss, very deep;^, ^ ^ die sae seufij paper that 
ith snow, very white, 

. life Tsen&. is very often used before the adjee*. 

to denote the superlative degsee; as $& ^ ; tseu^ 
nxeaou, very esceiieat; |g li tseui mei. extreTaely 
beautiful; ^ H^ piih ahmg. and .^ l puh kT7Q, the. 
forraer put generally belore, a^d tbe latter after the ai 
jecthe 3 are likewise of frequent occurrence; as ^ ^ 
^ $$~ fung shiog p^ih shing, insurpassaidy abundant^ 
X ^ T H& Hk. j^ n P^h feTio shing soo, an innumer- 
able host; ffe ^ \fi. j^ puh kwo, very hot; or in a oi 
structioo like the foUowing; >ft. il $ \& ^ J^ 
kwaesomokwo yuts^e, msutpassably swift; ^ 
^ ^ %jf~ chow g6 shin piih shing, desperately wicfeeA 
^ M6- is also used in the same manner; as $ ^ ^ 
5^ mo tache kung, the highest degree of meiit; ^t 
"R. M ..^ J^ ^ S & e kan tan mo tsze wei shin, flap* 
teg courage not to be surpassed; or a phrase like the 
following may be formed; as & $L t * VI "9T 
^ ^ kekwanleang wooek*hokea e, or ^.^r^T 
^x woo so k'ho kea, such generosity is not to be ex- 
ceeded; ^ M * ^. ^ jfc kwae kwo woo e fuh 
keache, excessively perverse; or the .following J| jjt 
|| % ^ .]Jfc tsan neo woo joo yu tsze, insurpns^bly 
cruel; ^^.41-^ ^f 3* %- ke hvyanheTro: r ;puh 
keikhisjoy wa uabounded ; so also i& cony^r^aJipn, 
4^ ^ Mr T J?> ^ he hwan ieih kaou p6h "fib, very 

17. Before closing this suTa^ect,. we may o%fiserve, 
that the numerals ^ w&3, ^ tseen^ v ^ f&h, and Hf* efeiE, 
are often used to deu^te the superlative degree; tbe 
tits* id last mst fre^iiently; as j| 'i?- wan 

ly good: f shili, joined with "? 

46 TOftSCRfAl. FROiromr HAF, 

also used to shew the gradation of epitfaets; as 

!$e Jim fiaou, somewhat gorwlr 3t '-^ ^ wo fun haott, 

tojctably good, t ^ ^f shih ftin haou, veiy good. 

These are still a few phrases that in some rare ia* 
stances express the .highest degree: as ^ 4t chaou 
Ju cife leJJt, J -Jg dMV 

ch*bfih cho0 luy,j^ ^g sae kwo, 0. ^*ae sliing^ att 
of which denote any thing above the COIKTHOU: so also 
tsuy kwei, Tery sinful, H |^ go kwei, mcst 
-tf- kae she, the most ennnontiu the age, 



1. W'E may here premise, as <i general remark, that 
peref3nai pronoun, when put befoie the sub^tan- 
!+ er whenever it is followed by ^ cbe, or 6^ teih, 
the genitive particles, becomes possessive; as ^ ia 

gt*0 kwo, our country; -: ^ jg ^ ffBo teih p^ng 
yew* my friend; $L & ^ 3jj& joo che tso wei 3 your ac 
tio^is. The saGie particles also that form the plural of 
Ii03as, are employed in the declension of pronouns:- viz. 
fifing, ; $l pei^fS. mutt 5 ^ tsaou, and -fir tse; (the first 
and third ^hy Tar the most frequent:) as $ ^gnot^ngj 
> Jg| ^ .rotm. you. So also 4 V S& ffi ?Q^ ieang 
*i>ofef ? jj gnoleti; we all of tis; ^ ^ joa 
all yfe' ^cefluas. 
2, The -{^-SBOURS .of the Stst peracri art 

^f y*l^- : 'y^ andvV -^. 

and sometime* >| y lbv v are -ya^d, ^ 

CSA*. .lit. f>n803?A PftQiWW, 4 

3. The Chinese verbs often imply the pronoun, e 
IB the Gxeek and Latin languages; thus B yue, he s~ii, 

^" k'hat), you see, I see, or he sees. ^Hiee 
there is BO inflection is the Chinese, at* in $be 
languages, to indicate the person, it .must be found out 
by the.context Nothing is so repulsive to the Chinese 
ea?. and the genius of the language, as the frequent repe 
tition of the personal pronouns. The pessessive is 
likewise, in most instances, where our language TC* 
quires it, omitted; an3 only where a stress is laid tzpou 
the word, it is at all employed. 

4. Instead of using 4Jie personal pronouns, the Chi* 
neseadopi various modes of avoiding it, of which w 
shall enumerate the priacipal, whilst we refer the rea- 
der for .the remainder to the Chapter oa the epistdar^ 

5. For the first person, either the same is sobstt* 
tuted, or the pronoun dispensed with; bj repeating 
subject: thus ^ #: f| 1j$ Jfc ^ Rwo wo.o 

tsze sze,I (Kwo) have iio ability &r managing thi^ af- 
fair ; *h $ & & A t f & m * m & M 

wae shang foo ta jin -tae tseen, fuh ke chuy -fcoo pun 
hang, (lij the foreign merchant, repair to the triJjunal of 
Your iiKcellcney, and htanbly ask that you will con- 
descend tD look upon (me} the nierehant. In describ- 
ing one'^ own office or profession, the term iir^imating 
the tjame very often beats the prefix Jt pin; thus-gover* 
nors in their edicts never .use the personal pronoun, but, 
in speaking of themselves, put JL pun, before their title: 
as fc. ^ ^ pun poo tang, I, the 'Governor.; ^ ^ ^ 
pun kwan poo, I, the BopjH>; ^ W HULU lieen, L 
the district Magistrate; ^ J^ pun ching, I, the assis- 
'taut Magistrate; so that in a Document of some * leagth, 
where we should employ the ^onoui), perhaps 40 times, 
in Chinese it would not CCCUT ^once. 

6. There are, moreover, some ccBveafiorial Ibi'mg, 
by which persons designate themselves. The most 
common is j mov;, such an one, and % yo, the stupid 

-one, for I Tfea Emperor iises JS1 ehia; tings, and 
pri&ces, !$* /v kwa jiu. S^-Xkoa jia. -^ ^A .5^ 

jife }in, and r >J; <?- yu seaci*. tss&e; which te?m* &re- 
perf*apB employed, in an greeted tone of humility, or to 
mitigate the power of their sovereign sway, by the most 
humble designations. A minister speaking to bis mas- 
ter calls himself ) cfei : a Mantel wstatesman3c noo,, 
&iteve; servants use >i & seaou telh^fjtpo, and inferior 
officers, * T> ehe ha. In common parlance between 
equals, 1 is expressed by $t i wan b&ng, and we by 
#& 3 wan pei; so also ^ te, I; andl^te pei, we. 
The people in writing to their superiors call themselves 
W- A tsuyjin, sinners; (which is also used in addresses 
to the l)eity;) and^e, arits; scholars and unlearned 
persons uee |^ 4 heo s^ng r or P3 i iiaiiii sSng:. A 
tifoman speaking to her husband, calls herseiiVfe tst ; ci, 
eoncabine, or ^>f ^ pe tse^, handmaid: a son address- 
ing his father denominates himself ^ *% piih seaou, y 
degnerate y or >) jiL seaouurh, the little boy; adaugh- 
ter uses ij* 3< seaou nytt, the little ^irl ; and an old man, 
$t A laoufoo, the old fellow. Thus there are for 
every rank in life, degradbg terms for expressing the 
first personal pronoun; asm most oriental languages. 
7, The same rule applies to the possessive; thus for 
my father, brother, &c. the Chinese say & 3L kea 
foo, the father of our family; or . ^. foo ts'hin, my 
Beloved father; ^ JL k^ heung, the elder brother of 
JUT household; and ^ ^ shay te, the younger brother 
in our cottage. A husband referring to his wife would 
say & A nuy JIB, the person witliin; 1^ 'Jr nuy ->h.ih 8 
the one at home: jjj^j& tse^ fang, the vulgar one in 
theehamT>cr; -*$ 0$ tih foo^ ihe lonely woman; 4*? $1 
ehue kin^, llie d:; r l thorn: & ^ san tse, my clownish 
wite: aod ^ l!$ tseew nuy, the mean? person within. For 
my jrelntlon, a man would say % ^ shay ts'hiii^ the cot* 
tage ronnection; and for ir?y son ^ & keuen tsze, the 
puppy; for my family, jfl $L ban kea. the cold house* 
!k>l<];!W my house, $ji ^ ban shay, 'the chilly cottage; 
and for my servant, fr ^ seaou keae, the little $oy* 
The r^Gc t common adjectives used for the gurtscses r,t* 
self depreciation are| tseea, base;pe, vile-; 

" as 


mean surname; ^ || pa kwo, our vile country; ^ ~fc 
shay hea, myjow cottage. These humiliating forms 
expression are so interwoven with the Chinese language, 
that the omission of them, and the substitution of the 
simple pronouns, would he very offensive against the 
taste of this extraordinary people, 

8. The second personal pronouns are y$r joo, ^ nth* 
and in conversation^ ne ; Jt nyu, is occasionally used 
&ri$t joo> and^Jfene, ferine; on account of the simi- 
larity of sound. In ancient books we find occasionally 
75 fiae ? J& j&, and-jiflljoo, for the second personal pro- 
noun. Thus 7$ - J jg zmefoo nae tsoo, your father 
and grand-father; Jl J$ )fr too nae sin, examine your 
heart The remarks we have made above on the first, 
apply also to the second personal pronoun. 

9. >. As in the induce of the first person, there are 
conventional terms used as substitutes for the setfosd 
personal pronoun. Thus towards inferiors the name 
is BOW and then used: equals aye addressed by ^ JL te 
fe^ung, /brother; or^b |L seen sSng, teacher ;^g ^ 
seang kimg, Sir; fc $ jin heufig* benevolent brcther; 
& )L Jaouheutig, venerable brother;^ JjS& tsun kea, 
Sir:^ J: keashacg, ditto;^ ^ heungchsog, elder 
brother :g ^ a ko/ brother;^ virbenng tae v or & 
^u tae beucg, e&alted brother: and to a lady ^ ^.a 
tseay, sister. All these ^erds infer the eminence or ex- 
cellence of the person addressed, but are used in com- 
mon conversation in the same way as our ytm. If a per- 
son have an? official rank, that is then tneatroiied. 

10. As honourable expressions towards superiors, 
we may-^einaA thefollowiBg:^ A te jm, % k~ A 
laou ta jra^jfe J^ jfc laou tafoo. whieh are used either 
to venerable pei-sons, or people in high rank; as vener- 
able Sir ! or your Excellency ! To teacbers, or ffentle- 
men are applied ^t 4 seeas&ng, teacher; >g % i 
iaou seen sang, venerable teacher:^ JL ^ laoa tae 
tat, venerable superior; j^j ^ i tat lao^ seen 
s^ng : great and venerable teacher; or^ ^l?jti sze, 
venerable instructor. Spiritual guides are addressed 
as ^ 3c shin foo, spiritual fatbei. r lo men MI 


or people who have great capital at their command, 
they use^fe ^ laou teay, venerable father; jL ^fjr tn 
yay, great Sirei^ ^ laoa yay, venerable Sire! jL 
% 3jjr ta laou yay, great and venerable Sire ! the latter 
is addressed almost exclusively to Mandarins of high 
rank, while to persons high in the military service, 
JL ^ tae sze, great general, is used. The Emperor 
is addressed by H J| ^ wan suy yay, the sire of ten 
thousand years ;|| i shing choo, the august lord; 
7? T pe ha, Your Majesty ; JL |t ^ ta hwang te ; 
the great Emperor; H Jt hwang s&uig, his Imperial 
Eminence, and similar titles : in letters a variety of other 
expressions are adopted, of which we shall speak here- 
after. We may just remark, however, that 251 every rank 
of life, there are certain expression to convey an idea 
of the esteem in which one holds the person addressed, 
Thus Coufucius called his disciples Jj> ^- seaou tsze, 
little children ; or d ^ ^ urh san tsze, my fcwo or 
three lads; while they, an the other hami* called him, 
^r -J- woo tsze, our sage; or simply^ ts^e, sage! 
There are a variety of other words principally combined 
with ^ fan, a pattern, used for you, in highly flowery 
language, as 3t fi, kwang fan, the bright pattern; f| 
tae fan, exalted pattern; J| ^ yen fan, strict pattern; 
and ^ |i| ioo fan, urgent pattern. ^ Yen, counte- 
nance, seems likewise to be occasionally applied thus: 
as *P l| tae yen, your exalted countenance;^^ e 
yen, your proper demean our; andX ^ heung yen, niy 
brother's countenance. So also ^ tae, and u tae, in 
various wsytf; asj^ ^ laou tac tae, venerable \Sir? 
*pf 0} tae foo, your honoured name; -? ^ tae kea, 
eminent Sir; & ^ tae ting, an epithet applied to the 
ihree highest officers in the state; and a great number 
of Other expressions. Several persons are addressd 
by JrJ 'Jjt |e wei, gentlemen! instead of f <^ urh 
tang, you. 

11. One of the most common words used instead 
of the possessive pronoun of the second person is 4^ 
ling, honourable; as ^ )L ling 'heung, your honourable 
brother; 4" ^f' Inig tsun, ys^ur honoured father; - 


ling tang, your respected mothei ; 4^ |p ling laag, your 
honourable son ; ^r -| ling gae, your excellent daugh- 
ter; likewise called nf & tseen kin, your treasure; 
so also ^ Jt ling .^hing, your good wife; ^ ifl ling 
chung, your favoured concubine. In the same sense ^ 
&wei> nohte; and 'I? tsun, honourable, are also used: as 
jff Hj kwei kwo, your noble country ;~^| J| kwei 
k&n<r, your noble age ; ^ %* tsun ming, your honour- 
ableiiame;^^ fang ming, your fragrant appellation. 
A few terms less used are Us kaou, high; i shtn)g^ ex- 
alted; and^f! shing,lull: as ^3^ kaou sing, your ele- 
vated surname; jt ^ shang loo, your exalted house, 
? ^ shing pang, your prasperous coustry, T he rea- 
der will not fail to remark, that all these adulatory ex* 
pressions are jiist the opposite of what is in use for the 
first personal pronoun, where every epithet is employed 
that caA convey the id^a of inferiority: so much for 
Chinese politeness. ; 

12. The most 'common word foi Uie *hird pei^omj 
pronoun in literary composition is Jt ke, he: or Jt A 
ke jia, that man; which is used in all cases, and stand* 
for he, she, it, they, them, his, her, its, and theirs ; with- 
out the addition of the particles that convey the idea of 
the plural Thus Jj )9f % ke so wei, that which he^ 
does; Ji |fc ^f ^ wei ke so bw6, was led astray by 
him;jf: "^ ke yen, his of he* words ;^ 3f ke chung, 
in the inidst of it. In conversation ^ t'ha, is employed; 
while the plural is formed by the addition of #5 mun. 
^Pe, that person, is more literary, and is likewise 
used like j ke, but of less frequent occurrence : f^ e, 
he, may be found now and then, and is turned into the 
plural by the addition of ^ tng; as f^ 3 e tSg, they; 
this word occurs frequently in legal papers and ^edicts* 
but not elsewhere : the constant use of it in our transla- 
tion of the BiWe is unsuitable : ;# nae, occurs in ancient 
books: as 75 Jfe'jffc T 3t i^ nae tseu hwuy tea waa 
woo, he assembled the jvil and military authorities 
under his banners. There are also two local words foj: 
the third personal pronoun: viz. *& keu. cud- 31 1^ 


eu nung. Otherwise the nouns are put, rs # Q nyu 
,$he said; ^ ft po ts6 5 the servant did it, 
\ 3. For the oblique cases >/T che, meaning him, 
, it, or them, is- the most frequent; as ^J ^ ta che, 
heat him, her, it, &.C. jffe >j. ^ keu cfeuh die, drive 
Item away. In ancient hooks we find a possessive 
:v>ttnj^keu^, which is exclusively used for this 
ase: as ^ JpL ^ I^Jfc, ffc chang keu tih, paou 
|eu wei, he who preserves his virtue, maintains his 
throne. Otherwise^ tsiE, own, and |t ke, his, are far 
wore frequent. It Tsze, may occasionally stand for 
he, or she; aiid d% she, for it; as ^ X JK ^ seaou jin 
fan she, the inferior man reverses it. In a construction 
like ^ |f| ^ foo tub chay, he who reads, ^ foo, 
iDight he thou ht to stand for the third personal pro- 
noun, but more 'of this under the relative. 

As a general rule we have remarked, that the third 
nnal pronoun is less in use than any of the others, 
and that the na me or noun often 'replaces it The 
language heing devmd of grammatical rules, as we 
understand them, nmch obscurity is thus avoided. 

14, The reciprocal pixmou&s are H$ tsae, ke, 
fi & teze fee, g |^tsze kea, ft jf- tsse shii),j^ ^ 
pun shinj kung, J| shin, and^tsin. These are 
joined with the persaual prooouns; as^c ^ 2*- gno 
ts^e ke,l myself; & j> ke tso, he himself did it; ^ 
^ tsin lae, he himself came ; & ^ 3k P^a she gno, or 
ie gno pun shin, it is I rayself; ^ ^c 
teze kea woo t&een^ bt htriiseli bas got no money; 
ts?;e hae tsze ke, %e injured himself; 
tsse mwan tsae tsuh, -self-sufficient, ^ 
wet t'heen tsze, being himself Emperor; 
foo tsin kung k^ng, my father himself 
J ghefl; ^ ^ J^ ^ tsze shit? puh tung, he himself 
DT move; ig d ^ ^ ^ tezeke wooleang mow s 
; jeKes ha^a uo feasible plan; ^ Ijr.t&m pedh, an 


autograph ;^$i ^ tsin show* bis owaa hand, ID opposition 
to that of aiiOtber;^ J^tsin yu, self praise; H C ? J$ 
kungjsiri pae woo, be himself bowed and dancedy j} 
3j|; 3 ^' kung tsin ke tsze, he di$ the work himself; 
3$ $3 3& j? gfl kung woo teih, 1 myself have no 
strength ; ^ J|| wei kung, my trifling body, is an 
Tmirible expression for myself; ;fl| H J^- tub tsxe 
$u* jin, I myself alone; |J ^ tsge .sbe^: self-righteous; 
}g- ^ k& fcsge, each one himself >ffe ^ pe tsge, others 
together with fmeVself;- ^ >^ ^ '!^ jiayihke 
cbe gae tsang, to follow oneis own partiality or passions; 
^ ^ i r!S ^ & ^ A che yew ke, urb pahche 
yew jin, to advert merely to one's ownself and not to 
advert to others: i. e. selfish. The above will eluci* 
date the manner in which the reciprocal pronoun is ap- 
plied. Whenever there is no stress upon the personal 
pronoun, it is omitted. 

15, The term used to express mutually is-tS seang, 
with its compounds 5 3$ boo seang, fj ^| tsze seang, 
$3| ^| te seang, ;$ j^ seang ying, ^g ^ seang tuy, 
%Q & seang e,^ || seang ehing,^ . seang boo, 
together with $C P^ ^L ^ze $ and ^j kin; ag ^@ ^f 
seang haou, on mutual good terms ;jt $S %& ^ hoo 
seang ho rniih, mutual harmony; >|i. ^ ^g Using 
tsing seang y ing, dispositioiis corresponding to each 
other; ^ -^ jfg |jj fookwei seang tuy 5 riches and ho- 
nouis which correspond to each other; 5$^ ^ ^ ^C 
>^ pe tsze hoo e chang, this and that man depend on 
each other ;^.)Jt ^" ^ pe^tsze yew tsuy, there are 
faults oa both sides; g Jj_ tsze hoo, mutual regard; 
~~ %8 )fy ^ M M jr| ' tscl kill yew seang kwan, 
there exists oa the wole a mutual relationship. 


!6c Hie demonstrative pronouns are Jfc tsze,^p sze 5 

^tiiize,^ she,^ chay, ^ foo, andjft ke, for, this, 

the latter also for fM/rwith^S" dhay^ pe s and>SfJ na, 

for ffeil. These; ate dwnys put before the nouu, except 


3ji chay, which is strictly speaking * relative pronoun. 
Dfc T.8e, and <dt chay, haw frequepljy the sign oithe 
plural afct^hed. The following examples may illas- 
trate their use. 

17, j& lit ^ -trTsze cbuftg wang hing, this sort 
of disreputable conduct; jit ^ .f> ^ ia/e tang go 
t'hoo, this kind of worthless fellows; Jfc 2: ff .& tsze 
ehe wei yay, *his is what wi<s srm! ; ^ "[ jt wang; yew 
tsze, I hope for ibis: ^1* Jfc yu tsze^ih fchis place; Jfe 
^ tsze how, from this time; jgjj 4% s^e how, after this 
time :i& $L joo tsze, thus;^ sze, is rather sparingly 
used; it occurs in the phrases $ft ffa sze she, at this 
time; / j&f* ffi j|[ tsae sze low shih, in this mean 
"house; ^ $f 3T Ht IS: He sze che weiyu, is not this 
what was said ? ^" ftf Tg" -ftf ho sze wei sze, why trans- 
gress in this instance ; JC jfe JtP ^r t'haeyojoo sze, it 
is in general thus; $Lff y v flf P e h ji^ sze, whdi' 
man is this. $ Tsze, is not exclusively used as a de* 
mott$tr&tivc 7 bnt is sometimes taken to form adverbs; 
^^ J|^ tsze lung, I have now received; i& ^ J| ^f* 
> f ; H teze shih yu6 shih liih jih, now in the tenth 
tuonth, on, the 16th day; or ^ tsze, *^t" tsze chay, 
is frequently used at the opening of a discourse, es- 
pecially in letters when the real contents are broached: 
'?* 0% kiu tsze, now; ^ *$& neen tsze, thinking about 
tbis;j{L "^ tsae tsze, here;^^| tsung tsze, from 
hence* ^ She, occurs in the following corabinaiions; 
as ^ %she she, this time: ^* ^-yu&ta. or J ^ yu 
she, thus; ^ H ^ $f t&ngsbech^sh^or ^ 4 -^ 

tyu she die she. at this thne} Jl A she jin, this niaa; 
% yuug sV\e ose xkiii.;-^: jfc sh^ ^. on this ic' 
count ;J|^J|| tbe tefti, thea;J^ ^ she e t therdbr^ 
^ >i; joo she, thus; ^ -% tsze she^ and A .Jjr yu she, 
from hence ;^ ^ ^^ she so hau chay, it is this 
tuac he hates, 

18. \|, ^ Chay sze, this Business ; 3, fSi ^/C chay 
!;rj jin, this man; (conversational) ^ ^ chay she, afc 
*ii>$ time; ^f ^ cfeay Ic, here; ^ ^|chay yar,g, in this 
manner; g^^ chay p wan, in this way; and ]l"^ chay 
S^g, these' ^ lie. otherwise the third personal pro- 


, is frequently used for the demonstrative, especi- 
ally in good writing: as^ A kejin, this, or that mun, 

Jft $r kesze,this;jL ^ WJ^fke jo ho shing: yen, 
how can this be described in wo5ls;fj . & Jf Jfi 
urh ping rain ke yung, you soldiers and people are 
using this; ^ ^L ke yay, that night; jj^ ~p- )* > ke 
shwuy ehe ohe, who can know this ijj; Chay, conveys 
our idea of the demonstrative, in all those eases where 
it is followed in our language by s relative; as those 
who, that which: thus))j| ^r^ shun woo ehay, those 
who obey me; ~ J ^ frf jfe 1jfc urh chay puh k'ho 
tih keen, these two things cannot be had together; ^ 

% M ' $(* J* %i Z~ gae woo chay, gno yih gae che, 
these wha love me, I also love them. 

' 19. $L A Pe jin, that man; Jfc - ^ ffc ^-pe 
yih she, tszis yih^he, that was onetime, this is another; 
# ^ tsae pe, in' that place ;^ ^/Cnajin, that man; 

3p Bl" jH na she how, at that time; Jfj$ fg ^- na ko 
tszc, that ]joy;f(5 1 A ^^ fij St f$ na ko JIB 
puh she gno sM teih, it is net I who killed that inan. 

As demonstratives might also be considered words 
of the folio wing class, H^ wei,$t wei, and ; itc v/ei, when 
combined with BJ" she: as^. w weishe, at that time; 
also<^ ^- kin neen, this year;^> ^ pun yue, thk 
month. In like manner ;% || yew choo, it is thus; 
and several others: but as they only convey these mean- 
ings in those particular instances, they cannot lay full 
claim to this name. The demonstrative is occasionally 
dispensed with in sentences like the following: as -^ 

W $ ^ Jjf J u g^e gae yu chay, I love those who 
love me; ^J ^ *R ^ t A g^ hSn h&n woo teib 
jin, 1 hate those that hate me. 


20. These are only two, viz. $f so, and^ chay; 
but their use is so much varied, that it is necessary to 
give a number of examples in order to exhibit their full 
foiee aad meaning. 


21. Thus J$p so, m the following -sentence jfr jfa 
5ft H- pelh yew so sze, lie must have something of 
which he thinks; $j |f fl H so wei full 16, that 
which is culled happiness and pleasure; jgf' ^ J|- ^j?f 
so yew ban keen, all those who are traiterous Chinese; 
% ffi it & *j$ woo so yaou che wuh. the thing 
which I -.want, ^ % ^ J$i /V so wei clifey pe jin,the 
man wholes it; j^ ft &&'& $T & she 
so e, kwan ke so yew, look to the motives by which he is 
guided, tibe principles from which he actstjjt _^f tfjjr, 
ke so yah, that which he desires; $f <lj ;i|f -M IfF 
so wei chay ho sze, what is it that he is doing? j|J ^ 
^f 1% 18, ^" "chaouting so e lae chay, the man on 
whom the court depends; A Jif ^jin so han, that 
which men hate, or hateful to mankind. The word $f 
$0, is sometimes used with the passive construction, as 
In the following instances:^ -^ j3f ^ pet'hasohae, 
injured by him; ^ if A ^ ^, wei foojin sohwo, 
it was Ms wife that led him astrry ; or led astray by his 
w T ife. it is often preceded by j& woo, not; or M ho, 
what; as $k 3ft ^ ^ woo so puh wei, he allows him- 
self to commit every thing; literally there is nothing 
that he does notvdo; -H- J^i >P tc ^00 so puh nng, 
there is nothing.tjiat he is unable to do; omnipotent; 
"H" $% 3\ 31 ho so puh che, what place Is tijere to 
which he does not go; ^g* ffi jfc ^ hoo so puh koo, 
whatis^here upon which he does not bestow attention ? 
o- where does he not look*? that is, he looks every 
where; or thus JL ^ $f ^ fan ke so yew. all that he 
has, or whatsoever he lias; jl j3f ^ ^ fan so mae 
mae, whatsoever he bought and sold; & ffi ^ ^ 
fan so keaou yew, all with whom he associates; j3f )5. so 
e, means the motive from which an action springs ; also 
therefore ; ^ ^ so t^ng, that which is suitable, one's 
doty. This pronoun never adopts"^ t^ng or any other 
plural particle. It may, however, be preceded by *& 
cfee, as in the following sentence; B ^ $% ~|J ^ 

^C* 2l ^f ii ^ ow ^ e so sun g f s ^ che so che, 
what is- recited by tbe ii>^.th is not always that which 
is known t\y the 


22. The use of^- chay, is still more varied It 
oftfcn serves to form substantives for other words: as 
shen chay, the virtuous 1. e. lie who is virtuous-; 

ho ehay, the .student, i e. he who c-;tudJes; 
$ 4f & 4fc she heo yth chay che kwo. 
this is the studying of the Yih-king to excess: 

, -4f A tfi ft x gae jin chayjinh&nggae ehe y he 
who loves mentis always beloved by men;j& ^ .3^ 
j& "If xT 'J$T tsze shen wei ching chay che sbuh, this 
is the contrivance of those who govern well; so also in 
explanations and definitions: as & ^- 4|. ^ ^R shan 
ichay tseiiea .cheytiec, hills are the sources of fountains; 
X jfc ^ '1* "IT & tih chay ;jm ehe so tan^ 
i^ yay, virtue is thst which ought t^ b^ prmriecd by 
men If i-t refer (o something going boibre it i? pre- 
ceded !>y & yay: asr| & $3 sharig yay ch-H T , the a- 
bove merchanr. Phrases like the following occur fre- 
quently in the best writer.- ft * ,# ,4f "M- ^ Kik 
& 4^ A it ^ ^ *- fooheao 
jin che che, shen sh&h jin che sze chay yay, 
(y consists in skilfoHy carry ing out people's design, rnd 
in appropriately recording their doings, (that is, a fihal 
child realises 'the intentions of his parents, and furnishes 
n continual comment upon their actions.) Mai^k also 
the following sentences: as & H ^ ^ ffi 7^ ^P 
U j2T-'>fe min jih tseen shen, urh puh che wei che 
chay. the people daily advance in virtue, without know. 
ing that they do so'; ^ j ^ ^ jl& % * ^ 
4^ wei yew heo yang tsze, urh how kea chay yay\ tlr^re 
are no (femalts^who (first) learn to nurse children and 
afterwards marry ;$& j .% ^ ^ ^- |f ^ Jfe joo 
tsze chay, tsae keih ke shin chay yay, thus calamity will 
affect his person; ^ ^ ^ ^L tih c h & y P^ n 7 a y virtue 
is the main thing. 

23. The relativ. is sometimes understood, in 

which case ^L che, a^ 1 ^ teih are used. Thus ^ ^ 

^ ^ woo yew che-i* ih, the ink 1 have; 4? >fx 1^ 

"Ifc "SL ^'^f'*Tfc v g"0 puh sin t'ha shwo teih sin wan, 

I do not .'believe uie news he tells: 


gae dbfc nyu, the woman 1 love ; and sometimes the a- 
bove named particles are omitted: as^ ^ A .3t $ 
we yew qin keih t?foa there is none to equal him; ^~ 
3 dt k'han hoo keun szt% the soldiers who beheW 
the corpse. 

24. The principal interrogative pronouns 
shwuy,jffe shuh, and t? ho; each of which is used in 
various ways, as may Be seen from the following ex- 

25. |pL | Shwuy kan, who dares ? H A shwuy jii>, 
what man ?^% ^ she sh wuy r who is it? ^ ^ ^ ^ 
nae teih shwuyho., to whom is it of consequence? ^ 
^ ^ shwuy che tsze, whose son ^ M 

iea tsze, the son of whose family ? & $fl , ~jfc 
tbjse wuh she shwuy teih, whose are these tilings? ^ 
^ ^ shay gno ke shwuy, who would pass by me^? 
~fjl 1& >, she shwuy che kwo, whose fault is it? ^ 
^ ^Spuh keih joo keih shwuy, if he does not give it 
you, to whom will he give it ?".Jt ^ iljk ^- ke chung 
shwuy haou, who amongst them is the hest; or in con- 
versation 1& IffijfjL H 7^. ^ t'ha mun le t'how shwuy 
haou, ditto. ^ "^ |jt puh lun shwuy, whosoever; ^ 
^ ^ 13 woo wun sbway ho, whichsoever; ^ ^j 
S puh keu shwuy, ao matter who. 

26. ft |t Shuh n^ng, who is able ? or ^ ^ 
^J ke shub n^ng che, ditto. ^ *& ^ ^ we che shuh 

she, we know not which is right ; ^ ^ ^ ; &shuh 
puh k 5 ho jin yay, what cannot be borne ^J^ ft ^- ^ 
>?: keun shuh yu put?, ^euh, ^ith whom would Your 
Majesty find a deficiency ? ft Jff f^ E ^ -shuh 
yi?er^ shuh che yay, what can he wish for that he does 

obtain i$V fjf ^J ^ ^ ^L J^-kew nae hing- 
sken chay shuh shing, who is it that excels in virtue 
and patience*? ^f ^ ^ ^ ^ Ji ^L -& t'ho seaou 
shuh shin, k'ho-gae shub shin, can anything be 

acuiycari aBythiirg be more lamentable ? 


27. 13" $ Ho sze, what business ? $t it /*J 
ke kooho tsae, what is the cause? t*T ^ ^ ^f 
ht> yew yu gn-o tsae, what is that to me ^^U -f* "fc 
yu ho, what caii be dane for me ? ^? 5t p ,"!%" ke 
nring ho, what can he do against fate ? ~Jfe 5- A, $?f joo 
thing jin ho, flow ean he rectify others? 1*T 'jH j ^ 
be tih che shwuy, what a falling off in virtue ! ^ ^ /^ 
3jf sheborjin cliay, what man is that? jlc ^ ^f A H 
keaou hwan ho jin urh, to whom did you restore it? j|r 
H ^ 1^ j oo hwan hoping, what 8ickness have you 

fot -? % % ^ S ^T ke yen chay wei ho, what were 
is words ?f^T v ft ho kaon, how high? or what is the 
"height? or ^ ^ ^ kaou- ke to, or ^ ^ -f? k^,^ 
joo ho, how high is it? 3^ ^T "wei ho, -fa" ^ ho koOj 
fi ^ jin ho, all sigwir why ? fC jE ^P jfe ho 
joo tsse, how is it come to this extent'? f*j ^p ho joo, how 
is it? at the end of sentences, and ~$$ f?f joo hc^, bow ? ia 
what Titaoimn? at their beginning. ^ ^" ^ .Ife- Ho 
yew bo woo, who. has, and who -has uoi ? frj Jfl ho 
ch'hoo, what place? where ? T. It" ^ A pttb hxn ho 
jin ? whosoever; ^ffc^ W A-^ peiehay ho jin sse, 
what is that man ? IP| ^ ^ ^ w> ^*n che yew f what 
n'eed of vexation ? 

28. There are other words Which crccasiottally 
stand as adverhs, and at crfher times as interrogative 
pronouns Thus B^ chow, occurs in a verjt few mstan* 
ccs 'for vdvo^ as ^ Xfp l|^ Jft t89ie tseang chow e. 
whom will you depend o'a? 3 j% shin mo, tar-ff ^ 
ahih mo, with ^ ^ ts&ng mo, or merely & shia, are 
of very frequent occurrence in conversation. (See the 
chapter on interrogative particieSv) Thus *ffc -ft j^_ 
shwoshin mo, what do yu say ? $ ^ l -fgj ^ Jf 

t^ joo k%?m cbay iko ts^ng mo yang sho<a^ look at 
;, and see what kind of hook it is;J^ 4lF jfe y ew 
shin na, what difficulty is there? > T ^ ^ ^*^L 
|t j^ puh 4 r hung tih tTia shw6 ^hin "mo, I do not un- 
derstand what he says. j8JS ^ Na ko, occurs for nlwse ; 
as ^ 3f$ ^ ^f ^ ^" s he na -k^ te ^ n show pei}%, 
writing is this? ^ j?f >fg} A, he na 


kojin, who is that^ ^ Ko,jL k'he, and ^ yen, are 

occasional!', lis'j'i bistead of 19" ho. 


29, They are ^ko,^-, mei, aM & rhfih yih. 
The use of each of them will be beSt illustrated by ex- 
amples, Thus^r H ko kwo, every nation;^ "f" 
jji ^ ko yen ke che, let eaeh one speak his own opi- 
nion;^ fe ko sih,^f all shades, or descriptions ; ^- ^ 
kohang, every article; ^j A ^ ^ >$L ^ an ?jin ko 
yew pun sze, of those two, each one is endowed wiflk 
talent ;-~ $T 'it ko yu ke tang, every one in his own 
clan; 3r A ko^yih jin, 6f each one man; ^~ A J^ 
JlL k6 jin ko keen, each has his own peculiar opinion ; 
^r ^?r jit J$I k6 k6 cha pe^, differing from each other; 
jg- Ijffi & ^ k6 pan ko sze, every one managing 1 his 
own business; %r ^ & $} ko hwan ko teih^ ]^t each 
one have his own; fr A %$ ifc-^ft ko jin too e ke,<each 
one adopted flie plan; g ^g ^ ^ suy searig ko ko, 
each one for himself; & ij v ^ ko tsze hwan chen, 
every one fought at random; single handed ;4*- 1-& ko 
keu 5 each or all; ^ 4^ ko kung, all unitedly; -|r ^ ko 
eboo, every whete. So also ^ ^" chuh yih, each; 
^ ^^ S$ 5 e yuh chuh chuh, he desired each one in 
particular; ^ 5 ^f H chuh jih so seu, what was 
wanted every Say; $5 *& chuh keen, every kind. In 
like Hisnaer we have 4|- A mei jin, every man;^ +> 
ffi ^ triei yih keen sze. every affair;^ g| mei she, 
each time; ^ & mei mei, always;^ ^ ^ jlj^ met 
y&h s^ang how, I have frequently wished to wait 
upon you in person ; 4|- ^ ^ mei sze wan, he enquired 
about every matter. 

30. Both is expressed in the following manner: ^ 
^ A ^ J^ ^ ke urh jin" keae seay tsze, both of 
them are writing; $J f! |^ jfe m leang ko too j en 
ping, both of them have contracted a disease; $ j?*} 
^& ^g| i^-^J. i*ha num learig ko lingle, both of theta 
are ^brewd; ^ ^1 ^ urh kung yung sin, tb-} 


both exerted themselves;^ Jf jfjl 38. & hemig tc 
keen fen fa, both the elder and younger brother have 
transgressed the law; $? $L f 'jjjfL y leang wei shih 
fan leaou, or $j $L fit f- /gt leang wei keu shih fan, or 
^ 'fe / f5L.;S too shih fan leaou, you both have eaten, 
yfc 3% -- ^f ^ j S 110 k y ew c he, we both have 
otir several intentions;^ 1* Jl ^ |S 3t 'ft ^ 
rauh tseang jru teih tseang ping 1^6 sdang, both the car- 
penter and smith are at work at the box; 5c 5" { ^ jg| 
foo tsze.vkeae taou, both father TIIK! sou are come. 

31, JSither m&*ieither are expressed in the follow- 
ing manner: ^ -J- ^ 3^ ^ fp^ hwu tsze hwo nyu 
yew tsuyy either your son or daughter is guilty; ^ J^ 
i^ ^ ^- ^ pufe she joo tsew she t'ha, it is either 
you or he: or $ fa $? ^ ^ J tse ^ P e ? if ^ot you 
than he; or J^C ^f jSfv^ ^r j^ chung peih yew yih, 
between ysu, one -must he iaipKeated; ^ ^ ^ j^ 
^C ^ ^ i hw she keaou sze hwo she e s&ng, he 
is either a teacher or physician; ^ ^ ^p X fg jg 
^ urh pang she jinkeen peih yew yih, it must be 
either of the bystanders. 

Neither is -formed by affixing the .negative- par- 
tide: as li fin ^ & jflf 1% J g. c?^y ko pub 
she na ko puh she, it is neither this noi thai; ^ $3 jjj[ 
& ** M J m leang f he meen keae woo, he has neither 
money nor respectability;^ $fc ^ ^ pe tsze kiii fei, 
neither the one nor the other; or JL ty $r 
chung woo yih, neitiier one of the two; ^ X 
^l&angjin too woo kwo, neither of them is guilty: 
ffi -fH .?! *e leang ko piih she, 5t is neither cf theta; 
^ t^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ t'ha ir i? in ^ang ko too puh 
tuh ? neither of them wept;^ d -g| %* ^ ^ ^f^ 
woo urh puh chay keae uuh tso, neither of us servants 
will do it 


32. We shall enumerate the principal characters ustd 
fori uleiinite pronouns, and the various modes in 

thid ti-^5,4 of terms is expressed. 



^ Mow,.$cRne body, such a one;^t J mow jin 
a certain perscm ; .^ 5f mow k'hih, a certain* strauger, 
or visitor;^ -- ^ j^ Jaoumoo mow she y old mother 
So and so J~ *$ $fc~ Jjt J^ tsze seih yu mow hoo, 
should I be familiar with such an one., J^c Hwo, is of- 
ton u&ed in; the same manner: as ^ fcj hwc> yu a eer~ 
tain person lias said; fjf JL hwO jin, some body. -^ 
Yew, also occurs in the same sense: as $j J\^ yew jin r 
some body, or sotrre man; fe ^ A ^. ^fc ^rpeib 
yew Jin paou t'ha che, certainly some one has told him- 
^ ^r -^ y.ew wh keen, or % jfe yew wuh, some- 
tning; ^ ^ yew tsze, sometimes. So also ^ ^ 
yew ke tsaDU, ^ ^. J, yew ke peen, j^ >^ ftj she 
yew teih r $ ^ $fc hw6 yew she, ^ ^ ^ heu ke fan, 
^ ^ 9? ^f y^w to shaou she, all mean sometimes. 

r nf#tv< is expressed by^ -jgj ke ko, a fewf 
soo fin, several persons,* ^J >P ^A 7^w to 
jin, more or Jess ; ^. A ke jin, A few people ; ^ 
U oojiih v a few days; ^ ^ g pah soo jih, net many 
days; orjfi JJ piih jih, within a short time. 

Several; i& thus expressed; % ^fc Y ew soo > ^ ere are 
several; || jg ke ko, several ;-jj- ^ B fs^B ke jih, 
'j^veral d^ysago;^ ^ J| shangkechoo, wounded in 
&e%^eral places; ^ ^ ^ ^ yew T ke kw r aewiih, he has 
several curiosities; ^ ^ ^ * ke fan, several times. 

For none or nothing, me negative i<; employed: as 
J& A woo jin, no man, none; ^ 3l ^ ^- S? choo 
e puh yih eh'huh, none of the Barbarians came for- 
ward ; '$$ ^ J^ ^ ^ yih ko yay rniih yew k heu, 
not one went away ; or ^rg J|L ^f ^ yih ko wei yew 
klieu, not<Hje of them went; ^ jfc Jfc, haou woodbib, 
nothing last;J| j: ^ ^ff J: shin shang muh tih 
cfewan, he had nothing on hit: body ;Jf J| ^ ^ too 
woo k'ho ieih, nothing to give; cjr ^- shay woo, jgg ^| 
seu^ woo,|lr J^ keu woo, all mean nothing. 

33. The Chinese have various mcwies of expressing 
our word same. The most {request is fil tunt?: as S] 
%a tur=g niing, the same name; S ^ tung aeei) ; -of the 
same age,;$) Utjuug jih yatng, iir ^ J?. 
yifc J>WB, in the-s:in; 


leang sin tungliaou won, both their mkidU have similar 
prejudices and predilections; )is) yih tung, aH toge- 
ther;^ J^ sang lung, the same;i ]pj jth -H ta 
tung seaou c, Very much the same, and differing 1 but 
little; p| $* ~- ^ tung sinyHi e, with one heart and 
mind; J3 ^ %f A, tung taou teih j in, men of the same 
pursuits; jf, ^ ptih tung, not the same, different; -^ 
(5J kung tung, ?*11 together;^ ^} ho tung, together 
with, the same with ; {J J3^ ^ ^ tung paou kung 
300, born of the same womb, and sucking at the same 
breast; uterine brothers:^} $ $ tniig-ehin seih, of 
the same couch and mat, bed fellows : Jl} $j- tung 
leaou, afellov/ officer; J^J ^ tung tsung, of the same 
window, fellow students;^. ^ |^ ^ woo puh tung 
chay, throughout the same; ^ fjjj keaetung, or ^ |^ 
* ^ keae tang yih jen,all the same. 

There are other words expressing same^ of which we 
enumerate the most common: as < yih, one>; ^ yih 
yang, or jjji yih pwan, after one manner; & ~- 
kwei yih, it comes to the same thing; Jf * hwa^ yih, 
to draw one liue;^i joo yih, as one; jfj yih 
meen, at the same time;^ ffi keae jen, all the same; 
^ > P u k keae jen, universally the same; J^ ^ 
ta 1&S seang kin, generally, nearahouts ; ^ $ 
woo e e yay, no difference; || H woo e, ditto. 
yih ch6, one rut, or trace ; p S ^ joo 
ch'huh yih ch^, as if driving inone rut; ^ ^J >$t 
^ ^ t'ha f hung joo yih yang kaou, he is of the same 
height with you. 

34. ForoMeror another the Chinese use^fha, 
4W -pefe?j5 Kng, aiid^- e. r IMs -Jjfc, H t'haj'h, another 
day;>fS A w'hajin, anofher ra^n;^ X P^ ji, some 
one else; ^J i -fe ^ P& sang fha e, to form some 
other plan ; $ j$L ^ ^ pee woo t'ha sze, no other 
<J)ject;^j ^ # ~fc pee sin fang fS, devise s^me other 
means; ^ *- jg t'ha yih ko, another. 

So alsoj? ling: as ^ B Hng jih, etnofter day; % 
Jfe ling im, a separate dwelling; ^ ^ fS she ling 1 
yih ko, there is besides another; ^ ^ ^-fi 
yia-tsocn, he has still got some other money; jlfc 


ff 1 |* tsze she Hrj keen bze. ibis is another business. 
The following expressions alseoceur-K- H e jib. ano- 

ther day ; "F H ^ a .1'k' ^ ie ncx * -* a y; JJff ff- niii-ig 
neen, next year, or another year; X -% ^ ? yew yew 
faBg fa, thcie are still other means; ^ A & ^ Jffir 
E 7^ .jfe- k ei1 ji n cne shih joo fee che shtbu look upon 
another*? loss as one's own 


35, This is a very numerous class, of which we -may 
enumerate the following: jt &n, ail; -fS ./t tan fan, 
whosoever;^ ^ choo fan, all, % ^ ^ A fan kin 
cbe jin, all the in en of the present age; fl ^ &L ^ 
fan yew heue k'he, all \slio have Wood and breath, all 
mortals ;Jc /O ta fan, generally ;^ ;L f^ fan. for the 
most part; }t ^ fan yaou, the most important of the 
whole; jt, A, fan jin, every hody; jt 16 fantae, every 
mortal; jt J5f ^ fan so yew, all creatures: and simi- 
lar expressions. 

^ Chung, and^%tsung, express the same idea: as 
Ufa, ^ rhung sang, every living heing-^^chung lun, 
the opinion of all, orpuhlic opinion ;$ Jf+'jfc.'fii kwa puh 
teih chimg, the few cannot resist the many;-$i & 
chungto, a great many ;^. JJ chung yue, all said; 
^ yih tsung", all, thewhoie;^^| tsuog seu, above all 
necessary:^ ^ chung che, all of you;^ fifjj jgffij 
tse tse.yew chung han tiring, all of you listen. 

ttf Choo. and ,^ shoo ai^ al^o employed: as>^| ^ 
shooluy, all kinds ^ ^ shoo to, many;^ ^ ohoi. 
min, all the people, the ^conimoR peqne:^ jjfa shoo kr. 
nearly, nearabouts;JSr ^ shu0i!co, almost:"^- ^ choo 
k ung. all you gentlemen ! pj| l|F choo sze. all affairs; 
^jj ^ choo to. a great many;J| -^ shoo chung, the 
multitude;^ ^ choo tsze, all the philosophers, the 
whole school ;ffj ^ choo shwo, general opinion; |j| 
^ choo kea. the \\hole tribe of philosophers; ^ ^ 
choo joo, the whole (acuity of scholars. 
^ Keae, and^L kae. occur. (J are occiio3:5!ly sy^o* 


CHA?. nr. roLLETtv^ PRONOJUNS. 65. 

nyfhous: asjt ^ nyu keae* the women ail;$L *8T 
chungkeae, all;# X JL teae pun keih, all made 
quate;jf $ |f nrh gno yh t'he, you and I arc 
one; ^. $c ^ f&t'hae tekeae jen, nearly all the same,; 
^ ^ ^ i wan wuh keae siing, all things are gene 
rated;^ ^7 ^ |t l ou yew keae tsae> both old and 
young arc present; ^iV th kae ' ail to g f ^ er - $- '^|L 
>H vfe tsesng kae keu chtih, dri^e them ail out toge- 
ther; A Mk ta kae, in general, or on an average. 

^? Too. occurs in this seruse; asA^^ Jin t<v- 
shwo, people all say; $ $$ fa $ gno too woo tsov, 
we i*re innocont; ^;^ ta too, in general. 

'jfe Kt^Ai, bears the same sense: asl^ ^ keu ehe, t?3 
right; f- ^ -~ foo moo Ireu tseuen, both father 
and mother are' well; $r ^ iR $- so w$i keu shen, 
all that he did was well; $. ^ ^ >^ keu tsun hoo 
Sin, he fcep& it all in hi heart; ^ ^ keu k# 5 each, 
every one; ^i9f^> ^ ^ ^t yew so sze keu puh 
show, tf all thai he gave he received nothing So also 
^eu;as^4fc seukeaou, to teach all ;^ ^ seumei, 
to level all. In the sense of ail, ^r tseen, is used; as ^ 
^g tseen seueo, they all chose; j; ^p Jt ^ ^| puh 
yueii tseen chay t'hing, he did not wish thai all should 
hear; j^ tseen yufe,, all said. We meet with ,^ haa ? 
likewise as a eollective; thus A $0 $ ^ yi wuh 
ban heacg, rational arid irrational tribes all enjoyed it; 
$C ^ ^ ban tsetsftti. all were assembled;^; ^ bar 
c, all suitable: "^ ^ 4| ^ shang tan ksueti ym ? all 
the merrhantR have contributed money. 

Mark also the following phrases: ^ ^ tse lae, they 
come all together ; ij^ ^ ^ yih tse keu i&, all is- 
sued forth tog'ethe? ; ^ '^ * ^ tse eh'huh tseg yihg-, 
they all went wt to oneet him ; ^ ^ tse shing, all 
vhh one roice;^ ^ -wei tee, all together ;|f ^ h6 
iea, your whole family ; ^ ^ A bo jih jin, ail the 
people of the city. We may mention ^ kuog, in the 
saoie conoetitioa ; as.^ ^ kungcke, all of them knew, 
or gener* Hy known ^ ^ kuu^ ke, the whole number; 
^ "^ i S Jk kuug e kwo ching, all unitedly 
ed aboui the gOFemment of the coutry ;/ 


jin fehinituag* fun, men and spirits were ail exasperated, 
||. 4^ toiuK: kung, or- $|_ kung tsung, aH toge her, 
- fte whole , >- -j ta kung. ditto, t^ ^' ho kung, all 
together; ^ 4^ kung kung. publicly together: $g 
W $LkTOg searg foo tsoo. they ait helped each other. 
A ^.Ta kea, iiv oonversation, signifies all, every one, 
all of you: as;^ fa fa g $ jj takea ineen "meen 
^gajag she, they all looked at each other. As a collective 
j^ seih, IB frequently used; asjfe ^ seih ken 5 all; |g 
^ seih twan, the whole were eut off; ^} 1J & yjh 
ts4^ tsin seih, the whole number, all together: ^ % seih 
leih, with one's wfeele strength . ^ y tain teae, all; 
|5 /* tsb sin, with she whole mind- 4- ^t tseuen 
fche whole number, all; ^ yin ts\ oy-^-^ 
yih ping, }^ yih t'huag, i^ yili ic, ^i- 
yih t*he, severally signifies the whole, all together. We 
only remark in addition, that ^ to, many, is often used 
m a collective pronoun, and that words like $ ketin, a 
heed; '4^ yuen, clouds ; ^ fung, bees; are frequently 
used to denote multitudes, though it would not be ex- 
actly proper to consider them in the light of collectives. 
We may easily perceive after the perusal of this 
Chapter, that the pronouns of this gigantic language 
as varied as those of the richest language. 




I. THERE are three v?ays of writing the numerals, 
The first is called the& ^ fc ^ S ^ yuen pua 
tf?ihBCK) miih tsze, or the original mode of writing them, 
antfris common in books or ac;ounts, The second is cat 

UM capital mode of writ?ng > and consists in a selection of 
^^meters shnikr in sound, but of various meanings. 
7 hey are ased ia brds and imporiant document^ te 


prevent their being easily erased or chants**!* or for the 
sake of ornament, and the display of learning. Tfce 
third and last called fa ^ fo "lit ^ t* a ^a * e *& 
sootsze, or^ **f $$ Ijfc g .^ soo chow masoonaufe 
tsze, are abbreviated forms used to facilitate writing, and 
expedite the drawing out of accounts; they derive iheir 
names from Loo-Choo, the place where they were per- 
haps invented. 

2, The iphole system of numeration is decimals 
which the Chinese carry through all their calculations, 
to the highest and lowest numbers. They went ongin- 
al]y not further than a myriad, #ad up to this day go on 
numbering in this manner. Thus the? say, f- J sbih 
wan, ten myriads, for 100,000; E ~f" j^ san 8hih wago, 
thirty myriads, for 300,000; gf ^ yih pih wan, a 
hundred myriads, for 1,000,000; ^F Hf yih ts&m 
wan, a thousand myriads, for 10,000,000. The follow* 
ing is of later invention: such asfj|:yih, 100,000; 
^bchaou, 1,000,000 - JC king, 10.000,000;^ kae, 
100,000,000. The word^ te,J^ jang,>^| kow>|g 
ke'en,3 ching, and^ tsae,are also used by the BueL 
hfiist and Tao^-priests to enumerate their endless kulpas. 

3. Some numerals are used in a peculiar manner, of 
which we shall exhibit the principal idioms. 

Yih, is used in numerous compounds, some of 
which have been alluded to, in a formelr part of this 
work, and need not be repeated here: the following, 

however, may be noticed: yih yih, one by one; 

/fc yih sin, with one heart, unanimous; || J 
woo yih pub, without exception; ^ pub yih, or 
5j feiyih, not merely one kind; ]|p yih king, as 
soon as; |g yih meen, at the same time, whilst, one 
while, occasionally repeated: as 5f A P3 jg 
1^" ^ 3fc tft $Ji y& m ^ en ch'huh jnun, yih meen tuy 
cliang pan shwo taou, whilst he was going out of th* 
gate, he said at the same time to his servant, &cV jfej 
yih tsft, partly: as - |ij ft % % ft if yih 
tsih e ke, yih tsih e keu, partly with joy, and partly 
with fear; ^ wan yih, one in ten thousand, scarce* 
IjT, if perhaps; ;|c yih k'how shwuy, one draught 


of water; ||- yih she, at one time; Jt )?tfyiia 
tee she, in a moments time; jfc yih tsze, once; ~ 
^ yih sang, the -whole life; %j}s yrh t'hung , as soon 
#s he heard: and so with various other verbs: as jjfe 
yih shwuy, as soon as he slept; ^ ^ yih wang, as 
soon>as he went away. They use also ^ yih wei, 
orj|~ chuen yih, ad<lieted to^ devoted to. So also 
- ^ y8* s e&9 a littfe; H yife baeu, in a sligfit do 
gree-;- ^ pK teen, one dot^ j^ ^-.-jfc ^. 
^ bea ho yit geayyay we yew, he had n$f a single ar- 
ticle of furniture. This numeral is also oft^n used be- 
tween a reduplication of the verb: as^ *^ ^ k'han 
yihk'haiij to take a look at;$ ^ seay yih seay, 
just Avrite a little. When the numeral itself is repeat- 
ed, it conveys to the verb something af the participial 
meanings a ^ '$1 yih lae yih wang, going and 
coming;'* || j&jih tub yih seay, reading aud 
writing,; but it is also used in this manner with other 
parts of speech: a* i r- 1^ yih shangyih hea, up 
and doivn; >^ ^ij yih teen yih taou, topsyturvy. 

4. The second cardinal number ^ urh,is used . for 
both : also in the following connections ^f* Z~ puh urh, 
the same; ^--jfe urfa sim, double minded: ^ ^urh 
ts'hm, the two relatives, parents, ^ Leatig, is syno- 
nyrnous with the above; as ^ H leang e, cr j^ "" ^ 
J^ngta, the two regular oir great ones, i. e. heaves and 
^artfi; ^. ^ leang teaou,>the. plaintifi' and defendant; 
% ^ leaiig mei, the two handsome things, i. e. genius 
m lams, and beauty in woman; 5- ^ san sze, to ilunk. 

5. Ihey go on to enumerah: j^ ^. tsaesan, means 
<%a?e and again, frequently, thrice :Z |SL san tsuh^ 
the three relations, viz. father, mother, and wife; 2. $i 

g, the three ties in life, vis. prince and minis- 
r ftiriaer^md son, husband and wife; jL ^ san kwang, 
three lights, viz. un, mooa, and stars; 2- ^ sau 
, the three fowers^ viz. heaven, earth, and mate; S 
^ san pan| the three classes of attendants in a public 
<eiurt; ^ san paou, the three previous Budd^; 
E. [ san see, the three officers, viz. tlie treasvrei; 
^ and superfntendant of Ihe salt ciepartrj;e^i; 

CHAT. iv KtjiJSTiAi.8. 615 

jfc IP* s * n keih te, *ke three &%3>est Jiiefaiy ranks. 

6. They have afe^. % sae fang, the four Bar- 
ters; 1^ sze hea, in every part; Kg ^ sze shoo> in 
every place; 83 jg sse meen, an every side. So also 
)$ ^ sze e,all the BarbarisKK|]g ^ sae paoo, the 
four precious things* viz. pencil, pamper, ink, and ink- 
stone; ygt vfe sze hae-the four seas, by Hrhkt China is 
supposed to be surrounded, often used for the whole 
Empire ;.3J j|j sze heang. the four points of the eo^- 
pfass; B3 ^L sze ke, and W l^p sze she, the four seasons; 
$9 ^ sze t'he, or 83 ^ sze she, the fct& members, or 
extremities; and |5f ^ sze tuh, the four rivers, (in the 
north of China.) 

7. Tbey proceed with theii groujniigs ioJLwoo. 
five; as Jt ^ wookuh, five kinds of grain, or grain in 
general ;; ^ TITOO Itin, the five relations in Ufe^ viz, 
priDce and suojeci, , husband and wife, pRronts a^dch?- 
dren, elder and younger brothers, with frie^ulsandeom- 
pmiions;j ^c ^ Seaou, the five preeejl-ts, respect- 
mg, each ef these ;JL ^--woohing, the five elements, 
viz. water, fire, wood, metal, and earth, of which all in- 
visible thfangs are^oom^osed, and to whteh correspond 
the JL M ^ r oo sung, five planets, vk. Mercury, 
Venus, Mars, Jepiter, and Saturn; JL ^ woo tsang, 
the five viscera; 3E. ^ woo sih, the five colours; *#~ 
woo wei, the five tastes; ^& woo yo, the five highest 
mountains in China, towards which the worship of the 
ancients was directed ; jE ^ woofeeo, the five ranks 
of nobility; and i ^ woo- fang, the four points of the 
compass and fee centre, or zenith. 

8. They go on to enumerate ft &~ Kih ko, the four 
quarters of the world with the zenith and nadir ;^r ^ 
ihh poo, the six tribunals at Peking;-/; jjL 
luh fang, the six departments of administration in the 
provinces, in imitation of the foregoing ;;/\ ^ luh 
keih, the six calamities or inflictions, 1 hus they have 
also - g^ tseih ching, the seven celestial regulator?, 
viz. the sun, moon, and five planets; A. ^" pa fang, the 
eight p&iueipit] r . ' juhordinate.poiutsof the compass; 

/V a Ta, ih-i eiwbi diSeit;nt la\v*s of the criming 


code; A. :ff f>a hicg, the eight different ways by which 
the tributary grain arrives at Peking 

9, They advance in their cfa*aiieatiaa of numerals* 
to jt> kew: as,fc R) kew num. the nine gates of the 
capital ;;#, Jc &2W- keaon, the nine apertures of the 
lieart;^ jJL kew pin ? the nine gradations of official 
Tank ; JL. -tik kew chow, the nine provinces ; JL ^J kew 
bm^, the nine junishine;af3;& &_ kew tseuen, the 
nine fountains^, underneath which lies hades ; *f ^ 
shih tseuen, entirely perfect; *f -^ sh*h fun, very much : 
"g 7 *|* pih kwaa, all the Mandarins; f -fe pih sing, the 
hundred surwaines, the people; g" 4^ P^ n hwuy? tiie g e * 
neral assemblage of nerves^ the braii); ~J? ,^r, pih miihj 
the whole class of trees; ^ ^ pih ke, a Unudred plans, 
a great many schemes; ~g~ '$ ~g *}* pih fk pih chung, 
prove successful in every enterprise; *Jf ^ -^ pih 
tsesn wan, an immense number; ^ ^L tseen tsew, a 
hundred autumns, the birth-day of a person of rank ; 

^P IT ^ 1^ ts ^ en P^ *^ a to^ft a S reat wany ser- 
wats; ^f ^ ts^en suy, a title of a king, Your Majesty ! 
^ ^|| tseen chow, the same; ^f & J| ^ tseen saa 
wan shwuy, all woods and waters; ^f ^ ^& ^r tseen 
neen wan tsae, an amazing long time; ^ g wan kwo, 
all nations; ^ ^ wan suy, $Jj ^ ^ wan suy yay, and 
^ $ ^ wan wan suy, all mean His Imperial Ma- 
J est y H ^ wan show, the Imperial birth-day; ^ ^r 
wan fang, all pahs of the work!;$| ^| ^ ^wau 
nan tsung- min^, at all risks obey you; j^ ^ wan she, 
forallagc^^ Wan, followed by a negative increases 
its power: as$| ^ ^ ^ wan puh kantso, I Y^-'Id 
not on any account dare to do so; ^ ^ yih chacu, or 
4fe ^, chaou Trin, the millions of the people; j^ yfa 
king chaou, the capital 

10. Fractions, ^ ^ ling &oo, are expressed in 
the foil owing manner: as jEL ^ ^ ^ sanfunyew 
yih fun, or H ^ it *"* san fun che yih, one4hird; 
^7 ^ ^ luh fun che sze, two-thirds; ^L -^ > 
J kew fun che woo, five-ninths; ^ pwan, one-half; 

^ vin yih yuen pwan, one dollar and a half: 
yih men pwan, or j yih ueeu 


yew pwan> *one year and a half; f 41; ^ HJ" neen ke 
pwaii pih, about half ce tury old; ^ jsK P^an heang. 
lialf a minute; ^ ^ pwaa yay, midnight; ip -j- pwan 
tsfce, a son in law ; ^ % ta "pwan, the majority ; ^ ^ 
^ j|^ pwan bin ywan e, half belieti&g half db-ucting. 
**p Chung, sand ^ yang, &* both used in the sei-s?;- of 
half: a quarter is 48? ^ j sze fiin the yth; a qiu^ 
ter of an Lour is j?^ ^ %$ she shin yih k'hih, 

11. Once, twice, thrice, &c. are expressed in Chi- 
nese I/y joining the jiuiBerais to^ tsge, lU hwuy ? ^ 
fan, and if, tiaou: as 

one: He *;Jt- syotb^e, .several i5*irB; >L H *'S^ jih, 

second day ;]3| |gj S2ie.hwiiy, four Cimea; S JO U5 ..<fc 

sac hwuy sze tsxe, repeatedly , >> ||- I&h fe six times ; 

^ ^kefan, several times; xj| yili tsaoi, once; 

-}* v|f sMh tsaou, teaiiines; ^ ^ fea tsaoiu aeveral 

times] fp ^jt tseS tsze^ j die ts2e, ife.l'o.y tsze, 

f & iuy tsae,^ ^feen tsze, ^ ^ to 

^Lhaou ke tsze, ^ .jg: wang 

^- ./f se seS, |f H. tsae 

t?ae else san,jji ^ teih texe, |f ^ 

chuBg-dbg che^ all signify iany times, 

12. Double is ex|^e^sed by.JI chuag, wd 
shwang:asE ^ chui^fuli, a douUe t?ress; i ^ 
cliiing fah, again; j| ^j| chung k'hih, to reprint; 2. 
Z "i^ Si[ ^ san C ^ ITP S ^h^v.^b luh, three doubted; H $Jt yih tihwaag w^ 5 a pair ef stockings; 
% ^ shwiicg ts'hit), parents :^ |f shwang shwang, 
io pairs, ^ ^ woo shwnng, iaeomparable, geerles^; ^ 
>^ sliWMig tseuen, boA perfect Jp Tan,^ tuh, %$ 
till, asd <Jt chuh, all in5?an sin^e; as 9 $ tan SBS* 
a single jacket; j JJf tiaa tau, only, s^ly ; ^ ^ tih 
ehow, a 4ogle boat; 3$ >\ tuh yi jin, ke siagJe 
tnau;^ ^ t^h show, with a single haml; J| j| chili 
^hin, one peisoa alone. Fold is expressed %jr^ pei, 
and ^ kea; as Z fa san pei, ;^ 21 f? to sail pei, or 
>f 1^ 51 iS & shaag sao pei, threefold; i ^L M 
san ctjow shin, a three fold cord; jfr f Iksa yih pei, 


double; ^ ^ -f" if? shing che shih pei* ten times 
more; Jtu >fe" jka]uh pei, fix fold. 

13. In order to express the ordinal, 1foe Chmese 
prefix Jjl te, before the cardinals: as^ & te sze,, be 
fourth;^' ^ te kew, the ninth. It Might, however, 
to be observed, that they are seldom used, and that the 
Chinese generally express the carJinals thus: ^ -Jt 
^ /L ^ taou kwang shih kew aeen, in the 19th 
year of Taou-kwang: .2* % san yufc, the third mouth; 
3& $3 keueu sxe, the fourth bo^k. 

14 Odd is expressed by^" Hug: as ^ ^f ^ i^ 
-f- urh tseen Kng luh shih, 2,OSO;^ ^ ^ ^ e 
was Jing sze, 40,004. More is expressed by^ yn: as 
s* IT ^ ^ ^ foh pih ye yu ts^en^ more than 
600<rah,-f g ^; ,|t shih yuen yu shieig, ten dollars 
are H) ore than enou i^h ; ^ g Jt Jh sh^iyuene 
t^f) dollars andmore; ^ t. Hh S puhehangshib 
not more than ten dollars ; -^ g jji }; a].(h,yuen 
less than ten dollars, T^ T; V 1 P^ 1 ^ s ^'^ 
not below tea dollars : ^ L 3L jjj fl ftih kwo leatig 
san jlh, more th?ui two or three days; ^ i" ^ ^ ^ 
urh Bhih yew yu neen, twenty and odd years; ^ -f~ 
t soo sfeih rveen lac, for several tei}s of years ; /g 
-f- ^F ieih fcae shih ueeu, during ten years ; -f ^ 
ishih neea e wang, fo? these ten years past; ^ 
^ ^ 0*. neen yih pih ling woo say >, oe huii- 
dred and five years of age;^ -^ 4- 5. j^ show liih 
shtfe san suy, at 63 years of age ; -f ^" ^ ^^^ y ew 
san, thirteen^ ^ ^ ^L luh yew urh, sixty two. These 
ar the peeri&i&r modes in which the Chinese use the 
numerals and they ought consequently to be imprinted 
upon the memory. 

15, Addition is called by the Chinese X4 
soo 4 substraetioa ^ $t t^eo soo; multipiicatioa |l 
shliig shoo; the raultipifefitioa tabled f^ &~ i$L 
kew fao soo; and division is called ^ ^t ftin soo. The 
whole process of arithmetic is performed by the ( bi 
with great dexterity m the afiacus, a instrument 
whid* every Siuologue trill be eoaversant, 
We have kkeady remaxked thai the decimal 


system was carried by the Chinese to a very great ex- 
tent. Most of their money accounts, their measures, 
and their whok calculations being founded upon it 

In computing money they use the folio wijjg terms. 
Ten 'j* hwuh, make one 4^ sze, ten^ sze one^ h, 
ten^- haou. one /It le, (or cash) ten/!! in vne *?- 
(or candareen) ten^ fun, one, ||[.t6een, (or mace) Leu 
^ tseen, one $| leang, (atael. or ounce.) For heavier 
articles they add 16 S leaiig, make one % kin, (or cat- 
ty, 1J lb, avoirdupoise) 100 j>f kin, make one ^ ten, 
or ^L tan, (pecul, 133^ Ib.) 

17. ' Tlieir long measure is the following: 10 & fun. 
make one 3~ tsun, (or pint:) 10 ^ tsun, one K. chih, 
(or oovid) 10 }L chih, one ^t chang, (about four yards; 
in Canton a yard is called^ ma;) 10 ^: chang make one 
$\ yin, In- measuring distances they say, live Jt chih. 
make one^ poo, (or pace about 5^ feet,) 360 ^ poo, 
make one $. le, (Chinese mile, about 659| ( yards,) 250 
HL le v make" one^ too. (mathematical degree, which 
is also iivided scientifically into 60^ fun, or minutes; 
and each of these 1j~ fun, into sixty ^ chaou, or s* coeds.) 
In land measure ilve ^ chih, (as above) make one ^ 
poo, or kuag, 240 Jj, kung ? make one SX. mow, and 
lOOpijLmow, one^ king, 

18. In dry measure, their mode oi reckoning is the 
following:;?; ^t luh suh, make one i kwei v ten i 
kwei, one ty chaou, ten^? chaou, one i|c tso, ten jjfc 
one ^ cb^, ten ^ cho, one ^ho, ten ^ ho, one 
ci\ig, or pint, (about 31| cubic pints) ten ^ shing, 

3|- t<*w, or peck, (about 316 cubic puts) five Jy tow, 
on? S4 hwiih, (or 15bO cubic pints) and twoi=fhwuh 5 
make one >6 shih,(or 3160 cubic pints.) This is the 
scientific arrangement, not exactly followed in com- 
mon life, where two ft yo, make one ^feo, the remain- 
der it as above. 

19. In working time the Chinese make use of fwo 
sets of horary characters: the first is *f ^ shth kaa, 
the ten stems, or JJc ^ t'heen kan, the ceie,s*tial stems, 

hese are f kea, t^ yih, ^| piu^, X tine. ri woo, ft 

wei. The oilier *t- 


ries consists of he "f ~ j. shih urh che, the twelve 
branches; ais<> called :$fc Xte cne the terrestrial bran- 
ches; which are ^ iszfi, JL chow, <j? yin. JjS maoiuj^ 
shin,; sze, ^ Tfoo^^wei, 1^ shra^jgj yew, J^'sefih. 
and J( hae. 

V 2(X For hours the twelve branches are used finely. 
The civil day of 24 hours is divided into twelve periods 
comprising two of our hour:-;, each |[ si 

They commence fr^n; 11 o'clock th*. 

first character iijriu,^ the time between 11 arv 
o'clock. By prefixing J chmg e'Tui $ If aou, to these 
dhnracters the twelve periods are divi- o 24 ho>*rs, 

Thus JL *f chingwo, exact ntK>u., or 1 
keaottwoo, 11; ^.. M ..T ^ cbiv.- 

keacu hae, 9; R M. &c. Tlie j^^ she s^ 
are divided into eight^ k'h'ih, quarters; an- 
these into ^ pwan, or halves;* as jt J8$ * ^| chine 
seA yih k'hin, a quarter past eight; P. M. $ *f? 
^ keaou yin urh k'hihpr;*,::, 37{ r*iinute nasi 
A. M, I he night from seven in the evening, 10 five IP. 
the morning, is divided into live J* k^sisg. or watches. 
each comprising two hours. The sanie twelve branche^ 
sen'e also to designate the points of the compass: thu> 
^h tsze, means north; ^ woo, south: ^jj maou, east; 
and W yew, west; the other eight denote the inter- 
mediate points. Most of their months consist of 30 
days; the first month is called J JJ ching yut; the 
first clay of each month is called ^ Is'hoo jih: while 
tfeis% ts'hoOj is prefixed to all the days up to the tentl*. 
day: as ^f - B is'hoo urh jih, the second day: ^ff 
"L S ts*hoc san jih, or sithply ^J 2. ts'hoo san, ibe 
third day* &c. Tke month is occasionally divided into 
three decades, called Jt || shang seun ; vj* 3? chung 
seim > and *T ^ hea seun; the first, second, and third 
decades ; ^j |*J seun ituy, within ten days ; | 
wae, more than ten da y; Z ^ san seiui, one 

seun, the same: Jf g* -t ^ Been e 
already 70 years of age. An intercalary 
of wBirh there are seven in nineteen years, is 
5 M J lm .V u ^, the rule for fixing the same i*. 

. iv. *. 75 

that when during a lunar month, the sun does not enter 
any particular sign of dis zodiac, that mouth is in- 

The Chinese year is luni-solav, consisting of 12 lima? 
months, to which an intercalary month is added as a- 
bove, to make the lunar correspond with the solar year. 
it commences on the new moon nearest to the fifteenth 
degree of Aquarius, and is corrected according to the so- 
lar year, by the use of twenty four terms or half moriim, 
called |p ^r t-se' ling ; eacb of which expresses the pe- 
riod of the sims passage through the half of a zodiacal 
ign, .See the amused table. ) 


Jan. 6. /h '%%- Seaou-han. Sun 15* in Capricorn. 
Jan. 21. *. *Ta-han, >^ 

fr'eb. 5. A * Leib-chun, j; Site in 

* w 

Feb. 19, 33 3JC Yu-shwuy, ) . .. 

Mar. 5. ^^King-chih, $ Sunm Pisces. 

Mar. 20. ^ ^ Chun-fun, > c . 

Apr. 5. Jt 58 Tsiug-ming, 5 &Un " 

Apr. 20. 'Sc S Kuh-yu, > ,, . _ 

May . 5. A 3E Leih-hea, { Sun m Taurtts - 

May 21. j} ^t Seaou-mwan, > ,, . 

June 6. -S Jl Mang-chung, {&*" Genum. 

June 21. i j Hea-che, ) c . _ 

July 7. ;J^ ^f Seaou-shoo. J * un m ^ nc - 
July 23. A 4Ta-shoo, 

Aug. 7. Jt Jt Leih-tsew, J Sun m 

A^g. 23,^ ^ Choo-shoo, > , vr 

.rep. 8. fi^Pih-loo, ^un 111 Vwgo. 

Sep. 23. $fc ^- Tsew-fiin. > _ 
Oct 8. ^ ^ Han-loo, Sua Llbra - 

Oct. 23. if^ Sbwang-keang 

N ov, 7. 4 ^ Leih-tani:. <Suu ln 

NOT. 22. ;h : ." eaou-euh. ? 


Dec 7. A * Ta-seuh, 5 &un ln 

Dec. 22. 4? $ Tung-cbe, Suu ei>ters 



CRAP. 1Y. 

The Chinese count their years either according to the 
r.-i*?'j of an Krnperor; as for 1840 they say >3t 3fe ~- "t 
if* taou kwang urh shih Been, or according to a cycle, 
called ^ ? keS tsze, of *^fc T "?" hwa ke tsse, each 
consisting of 60 years: these are marked by the above 
horary character-, (See the annexed tahle. 1 840 is the 
37th year Jf ^ kng tsze, of the 75th cycle, since the 
days of Hwang-te. ) 




f i 

ym chow 

ping ym 





yih hae 





ting chow 

hi I woo yin 

6 Jb 

! ke 




ii< SZ-. 



kett shin 












ping uu 






mug shin 

yib see 

piag woo 


kf chow 


sin rc 


;in whin 





kang yin 

tinL r yew ting we 

,5. i 45, 

>$ ;? 

r/** seufai i woosJSiiri 

36, 46 

ke hae | ke yew 

37 47, 

A jL. "^tb 
/^X" j ^t/% 



I 38 [ 4^ 
^JL i ^^ 

sin ebow i ui hat 

39. 49 

jin shis 



kwei ? 

jin yin j jin tsxt 
40 50 

kea yii 


yih maou 

ping shin 








kang shin 



*iu yevr 


jin scuh 




21 . In enumerating, the Chinese do not generally 
the ordinal* as our first, secondly, thirdly. &c. hv 1 adopt 
iht> following method las**- ^jt yih lac, first ~ $L arh 
lae, secondly; (also occasionally $ ^R ^ ^ /- ) 
or * 3% yib chay, in th first instance; ~~ % urh 
eh ay, in the second instance: or < jjf.yih tsih, in th 
first place; -j2. |$ urh tsih. in the second place; or ~~ 

H yih yu&,ji Q urh yuc, the same-; -->r % keyih, 
the ftrst;j}( ^ ke urh, the second; &c. In many in- 
stances they only use yih, and will go through a 
whole sones of subirrtr, prefecte^ >ath yih. 

Fii^t, second, and tte are expressed byjt shang, 

4 1 chung, and T hert Fire^ and last by^^rche 
chung, ^ $L pun mo, and Jf ,C t'ho'-v v ei. First 
*od second by jE. ching ; ai>d^tsung. First, upper- 
mo6t is jt y^en: as ^ ^ yoen jih, the first day of the 
year; ;c v if yuen neen, the first year *f ? reign. FOT 
the first 'lay -:>fa TI/'-'V; month ^ so, is sometimes used 
instead of^KJ ts'hoo, first. ^ The uppennost i v s also ex- 
pressed hy^ kwfi as ^ $& isuy kwei, the chief of 
sinners. Otherwise first (before others) is expressed by 
It" ^ show seen. t>r ^ ^ -ts tiy seen. Last: as last 
year is expressed by ^ ^ k'heu neta, ^ ^ kew 
i>een. or .f : i^: k r h ^bc last day of the year is 



1, As the Chinese verb has not yet been exhibited 
in all its bearings, we shall be the more particular upon 
this suteect Thus it will be our object to show, how. 
thoughTtevoid of moods and tenses, it is made to answer 
all the purposes of our conjugations and infections; 
while we must always bear in raind, that unless rhe 
distinction become necessary, aone of the grammatical 


particles or auxiliaries are employed. It is an exiensive 
subject in the disquisition of which, we in treat the rea- 
der's patience, which will, as we hope, be not inappropri- 
ately bestowed. We shall not burden the memory by 
rule's, but mostly teach by examples, and endeavour to 
shew by these, the various modes in which the verb, 
tailed by the Chinese !pr ^ tung tsze, or Jg '^ hwo 
tsze. a r-rO-viDg or living ehm~acteris used, 


2. We begin with this class, as affording an intfCM 
duction to the subsequent remarks. From the nature 
of the language we may easily suppose that auxiliaries 
are rather numerous. The principal ones with their va- 
rious uses are enumerated below. 

3. The first is % tih, to get, or obtain; it also sig- 
nifies ability. Thus f ^ tso tih, it may be done, 
practicable; $t ^ gae t*h, may he loved, amiable; 
'ft Jf* 1$ te Fuk ^' i**ay not be done, impossible, 
~$L % -flf shwo puh tih. it cannot be spoken, unspeak- 

J i & ^ %!t PU& tih- shwo, idem. J| jfa ^ -j mu 

lib shwo, cam'-- saj anything; $r ^ ^ *$t s eay 

. dh puh k'hwae, cannot write fast; -^ ^ ^ puh tih e. 

*: 3%- ^f puh tih puh, cannot avoid; ^ -$J pun 
vih ieaou, cannot close ; ^ ^he tih, can rejoice; ^ 
^kixig tih, frightened; <| ^ nan tih, difficult to be 
obtained; If <$ & ^. ^than tih woo yen, can be de- 
sired without loathing; It -f| T ^ mei tih puh shing, 
can be considered i>eautifid in the extreme; ^ ^ i^zc 
tih, to have possession of one's self; ^g ^ seang tih, to 
be mutually agreeable;^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ tsingpiih 
tih tung pCih tih, could neither move nor be at rest. 
As already shown above, ^ tih, often indicates the su- 
perSative degree; as ^ -ff ^ panu'tili keih, _as cruel 
** powftihle , >fC ||r pa puh tih. or ^ 
^"<> -ib. <mvey the meaningof the Qptatii 

: be^>; ;^ ^ iieeti tih, or^j| ^ 
j>iv that it may ?>e avoided, or dhpettetf'i ^ ; ^-: r?. 4^ -f& 

CHAP. V, \lj\n, lAfUES. 73 

meen pub til', *i %\ A* tpf sang puh lip, unavoidable, 

4. We next rtfir to j|f cho, Wnieh is in some res- 
pects related to the above, though less definable. lr 
means to cause, to effect, and, in many in-statices, v/heii 
affixed to verbs, cannot be explained by any corres- 
ponding word in English: for instance .it M leih chi\ 
he' stood :5| 3f teih cho, did kick; If tso cho. 
sat: ^ ^ na cho, took. To this we add th$ f~ 

inst i.; ni caning will he clearly seen: i; 

^f k till we fed; J$ t li~ keen cho. got 

;!-. oft"% V ","ho. lookF.fl to-war^ ; $- ^ ..^" 

shwuy puh cho, could not sleep ;^ ^F\ j^f tsin puh 
cho, could not find; W ^ "^f lew cho gno, retained 
m.^;^ ^ ^ kan tih cho, succeeded in the pursuit; 
H? 7J[ 1& ^^ en cn ^ t'ha, thought about him; ^ ^ 
inei cho, oi\ what account, for what purpose; ^ ^ 
cl>o keih; to be in haste; ^ ^- cho ling, to issue or- 
ders; TJJ: ^ cho naou, got into a rage, |j| >^ cho 16, or 
^ ^ y ew cn n answerable for* The general meari- 
insr, in most of these instances is, to reach, effect, come to 
obtain, cause. 

5. We may also specify^ kea on, or ^ |;r 
rase with;^she/^tfc^]^keih;^\ie 3 'iiKijt 

are all used to form a neuter causative, the first two ex- 
clusively in conversation: as^i ^ If -! ^ ^ 
keaou gno chow yay k'hin laou, make me work night and 
day;^^l -i$ ^ jS5 hewkcaoit foo t'hung wrm,, do 
not let the woman hear of it;^t ^ ^Ji ife" ^ ^ 
keaou gno jooho pan sze, how shall I be ahle to ma- 
nage the business;^: 5jp fl@ ^t 8^ ^ ieaou 0* ko 
urii shwuj cho, made the child sleep; v$ $% ff: 'ff 
-^ H ^ keaou gno tso heu to go safe, caused me to do 
a ^reatdeai of wickedness; *$ ^ ^ ^ -^ ^ keaou 
- i.ih k liae k'how, he gave me no opportunity for 
opep rw^th;^kj^^ "I 4 ^ 'S - Ifc 

^ %" joofaft : ven. keaou gno me-htso le hmiy. 

by your m^cr: speech and frequent repetition you pre- 
vent sue from understanding" you ;*4 ]i|j ,-^r j^ ,^ ^: 
keaou shasig sae to ^Kth Uh. r^.^kc it insupportable t 
the merchants. ^. Keaou, oii accouutof tbesimila- 


ritv of* sound, is often used in the same manner. 

ifc ffi She tih, it will do; fc A -ft & ^t she 
jin show nan woo soo, to cause numberless sufferings to 
people;^ f^ ^ ^t woo she gno shih, do not cause 
me to sailer loss; -?Jt A 3 ff :j^ : fL she jin ke shoo lae, 
cause people to send letters, -fife She, is also used for 
perhaps: as also 15 ftl^he she, /II fjt ka she, in th 
same sense ;-f~ ^ &*g wan, to give notice; ^ A 

Ir ling jin await pe. to cause people to rejoice; - f y 

^ SJ 1 1$t t w ** n ^ n g k^ a tsze :? DO sze ^ ^1 not ^ et 
your family starve;^ jg ^ ^ pe tseue pe ynen, to 
cauc>e the sources of evil to he cut off; j^t ^" gf- ^ ^ 
pc yew o e iae, cause him to have something to rely on; 

T4 -$f $- jfc ^" ^ rfe P e ^^ P 6 tsze > rcw P in S g kn - 
cause that . ttiei'e may ^ be peace on both sides. This 

word is also whiten ^ pe. 

$$ Keih, like the tbyraor, denotes to give: as ^ j^|- 
shan** kf:ih, to ^ive a re ward; f| ^ mae keih, to sell 
to; 3^^ keihtexe, give a commuaication, or commu- 
iiitate;|^^ 3^.^ keih ling hung pae, eause them 
to receive a passpor! . In edicts, this word is used in 
various ways. But in conrersation ic is often used in 
the passive sense: as ^ ^ || ^ keih gno ma t'ha, 
he was blamed by me; ^ %$ $& j^ gno keih t'ha nu, 
I was blamed by hirw;|^-^^f <^ keih gno bwo 
, he was told by me, 

Che, nieaas also to cause: as ( gt c che, in or- 
der to; JL )JSk che e ? cause that; | ^ che t^ to com- 
munieat^ information;^ ^ ke che, address to ? ^t ^ 
che che, to make known, or cause to know, ^ ;f jj^ 
^ che yew ts?:e sze, until this atfair was brougit a- 
bout; Jt ?& ^ ie s *e to cause death, ^ ^ J^J ^ JJ. 
^ k'hin laou r ehe tewan tseen, worlt diligently in or- 
der to gain money ; ^ ^ fcew che, do not let: Jt '^ s ' 
ehe ling, cause. 

6. jjK^ Peih, "I* kae,JS ji"gv^ wo ^M seil - 5! e 5 
^' tang, andj. ie, all mean oughi, mugl; and should, 
either singly or ia compounds. ?ji ijfr Wei peih. it is 
not jaecessary, it is net certain; $fc ^ pai'h teo, 


))k |c peih yaou, all mean indispensably necessary, 
fy? Peih, often denotes the future tense, conveying a si- 
milar meaning to our shall: as $*' 3J peih lae, shall 
come;^ *jj peih se'ay, will write ; ijfc $ peih tseang, 
certainly will;^ $ peih je, o*^ *j& ^ peih joo 
she, it must be thus; / & peih king, it will be so af- 
ter all 

Ying kae, ought ;^ ^ kae aBg s should; 
kae tsze, ought to die; j^ j^ ^ ^ ^ keu 
tunge kae yay, conduct as it ought tobe 
jfe ^* \ingtang, ought, what is proper: & ^ tsae 
ying, certainly ought, i! isnjy duty; ^g j^ seang yung, 
mutually required: JJL ^c ying shing, to take upon oneV 
self an obligation, to promise; JL J| ^ #t we * P^g 
yew tsze^ it ought nof to be thm 
^ ^ Woo seu, $r jjt woo peih, ^ ji" woo e, mean 
severally must, ought, necessary ? iftdfejpensable; as -fr 
)% %woo suh hing, you mMt walk fast; ^ ^ Jt 
^ woo peih tsin leih, it is accessary that you should ex- 
ert yourself; ^ jt ^f ^ woo e neang t'heeu, w 
ought to look up to heaven, 

J?jf J^ Seu yaou, necessarily must; ^f ^ seu t'hae, 
must wait;H> ^ji ^sung seu, above all must, you must 
decidedly; zjljjji $jfr ^ keu^ seu ttsban show, must cut 
off hid head; |TA 3j( ^& nan ta seu hw&n, young men 
when grown up should be married ;^jf ^ ^ ^ 
seu woo tih chuy koo, must not on any account make 
tences. ^ JSeu, is now and then used in the same 
^ $ Woo e, and j Jt le e, ought, it is proper; # 
3C *ean ? e t befitting;^ J & ;fr 3^ woo e 
ch'hiib leih wan seun, you ought to exert yourself to 
finish the business: jg. ^ peen e, suitable; | j tih 
e. proper; J ,^ e jen, feuitable;^ Jt hih e, just 
what ought to be. 

5 '^ Leta-g,^ ^ pun tang, mean what ought to 
be done; ;Jfj ^ seang tang, what is fitting to be done; 
IB M tag seay, must write; J? ^ ^ 3t ^ 1 tang 
lae t^heen taou, it is reasonable that we should trust to 
providepee;^.^ ^ g- pun 8<3 tang wei, what ou^ht 
to be done. 


M Le, just, reasonable, ought ; $f ^ ^ le so 
tang wei, what ought to be done;j!j| J fgj |j| lee 
*vS?i tsuj',he ought in reason 10 he punished, 

1 . $gf Yue,| yo, 4? jaon,V^| she, and if k'hang, 
a?l mean wislv, desire, want wtH: as^ ji tsnng yuei\ 
H j|: yuen e, to iwdbpH; $ A ^ ;ji yuen wan jin 
heang f uB, w^ wish -all men to eajoy happineaa, j|f ^ 

5P ft M "1 X f # fT-^ '^3V yew seay 
tih, yuen tuh ye^* ruh piih tin. wishing to write 
write, wishing to read and cannot read;^ 
yeu e k*fae diing, wv - -- you to go on 
your journey. 

^ y uetr T;; - sn4t 3t 4t'^ y* 9 mean to de- 

But could not; ^ ^ ^ ^ eyo irang elmen, 
he wished to sail | ^ "^ N ^ e yoho vim, what does 
fee wish to do? J ^fc |f ^ A ^ ^f y^n yo yo 
Seftj^in seang ho, he wished toiwjj ^a good tern> Mrith 
his family, 

p Yaou, and Jik & yo yaou ? mean to want, wish, 
&&* as $ ^ # y aou ch'iivA keae, he wanted to go out; 
Jc |r ^tJ^ yoyacmV b cliing, he wanted to atr 
tac 5t the city; ^ 4| tsuy JAOU, or ^ ^ kin yaou, verj 
much wanted 

3^ She, is used to express desire, wish, but is not 
r^soy*J so frequently as any of the above auxiliaries 
B ^ ^ ^- sii-* yu yo shih, io be addicted cc eat- 
ing and drinking; **f ^ ^ ^ sli<3 yo woo keung h<? 
ffe-iished unb-iimded desires or appetites; >fjt ^ ^ 
i le she^e. ] was only desirous of gain. 
K'hang, -/ill, to be willing as ^ ^ pub 

uw:, he v^^s a^wvlliug f ^> follow,-^ 
, to absent to, to agree to , ;j| ^ ^ ji6 

one was willing Lo do it. 

The verbs ft pa,^ ta, & lae, k'hei^ t^ tliae, 
|^ kan v |f h^gi nnd $| p'ha, are used in various ways 
as auxiliaries. 

$B Pa, to take hold of, to grasp, often occurs as ai; 
auxiliary, an*i is w many instances untranslatable: a$ Jf 
ife fe f^ -S- A ?>a fhab taou fsngBuy, tafc B 


drag him inside the room;^0,$f ^ -#$ pa seasg 1ft 
clruen, get the box on board the vessel ; $ J^ % H&- 
?? $t fe J$ ^ H p P^n tse che tsuy jin. heiing teih 
fhow, throwthe guilt of his wife upon his ht ther; 
H? 4fc J^9 pa wei woo yung*, deem it of' no- use; ^S 
yih kcia shaleaots, killed the whr>!* j tV 
3T P a no k'hmg leaou. treated rrie 
pa sin tsoo bo, to feed the riie 

of his heart towards him; $J ^ jjf ~* >^ pa sin mt 
yih mo. just lay your hand upon y<rur hea-rt; |g ^ ^J 
^ ^ ill ^ P a S 1 * ^^R k'hau fill-in tseea^look u.p*- 
us withsaelicoale?iip^;4E jij* ^ ^ W pa seaou te 
tang shen^ consider say brother as a ^irmmis man ; $L 

pe, to view riches as a fteetiug i^>ul: ..From' these va- 
rious examples H v^ii appear, feat the word, either gh eb 
a causative meaiimg, or niay be translated % view, ar 
consiior, especially when followed, by <* tm^jfe 
or^ idae, 

43- Ta, to beat, or strike, is used m a variety o 
as ata auxiliary: thus |j ^ ta eao7i, to sweep; $J *i$- 
ta tea, to fight; ^j |^ ta teen, to arrange; f ^ta ITS, 
^ ta pan, to dress ;fj ^ ta shwuy^ to 
tafhing. to enquire; J^''^fr 'jjtf iM 
yu gno ta ko ehaou meen, turn the face to me; 
M & ta ^ t'he lae, drag him out of the water; 
^ puh takiii, not of great importance, no matter; 
jg - H ta shir nio|5hkm, deem ofno^coiisequencQ; 
4j ^ ta chang, to fight. 

^ Lae^ coma is used in Vcirious wija as an auxilia- 
ry, hut commonly following the verb: ES ^ ^ ^t tso 
j^jjb las, could not do il; ^^ ^ jj* j&h tih lait, come 
entar,:^ ^ lung lae, ayproadb ; g lae taou, arrive ; 
-^L ^. w^ng lae, going 3Bdcomipg^mterc<Jtirs^ ^^ 
"teen lae, wanted to draw forth his sword , 
na shwuy lae. bring water here:j|| ^ 
siibo !ae, tsk^ look at a bocik'^-^ ^ tf ^ 
Che k'Ke'y^ih lac tahc un the - --i %-* - 


k'huh *eattg H he lae, began to weep; |& shw& 

k'he!ae\ *>#**>* talking; (^ jjt k'he lae, generally 
naea & t#-comm*oce;) & ^ ch'hiih lae, go out; ^ $} 
$ na ch'huh iae, take it but;^ $ $ jfc mug tlia 
chlmh lae, bring him out. It is often used as an ad- 
verb, er adjective; as^ $[, yuen lae, originally, now, 
placed at the begma ing of sentences, that explain the 
foregoing: as ^ $ 5C tsung iae puh, or^ ^L -& 
tsung lae woo, never ^ ^l ts&n Isc, the above fre- 
quently in edicts : ^ ^ how Ise, afterwards; $t ^ 
JjJ ^ tsung kin e lae, henceforward;^ j3| lae 
t'how, origin; j^ j|| lae leih, hi^torj, state, circumstan- 
ces, particulars, ,$JL ^ J|| woo lae leih, no foundation, 
no truth, unaccountable; Jt 4} Icie yew. c^use. yarfeii- 
|^r*; i ^t B woo lae j3i, for tjiese five days; ^ |^ 

^ ^fc Ji y ew sze ^ * ae y 11 ^' moj ^. *han four months 
ago; j^^ lae jKh, next day; ^ ^ tseang lae, in 

3 K*heu^ to go: as ^ ^ lae k'hcw, tQ go and corae , 
ife ife ^ *i" *eng lae seang k'heu, io ponder; ^ ^ 
^ ^- shw^S lae shwft k*heu, to talk over a .matter; 
^ J- seaou piih k'heu, unsaleable, cannot fee sold; 
51 ^ chlmh k'heu, go out; .3&-i tsm k'heu, o> jfec 
^ juh klieu/to enter; ^ ^ le k'heu, or ^ ^ ^ 
ie k'hae k'heu, to leave, to separate 4 J^.^- kwo k'heu, 
to pass aw 4 <ty;"& ^ iuy k'heu, to retire, to retreat- ^ 

^*na k,to take away; 'fr |f 4^ a pwau k'hei^ 
^-ke away the dish; (the object, as in the case of ^ lae, 
is sometimes placed between the two verbs:] ^ Jfe 
~? keang tih k'heu, it can be said; H ^ ^ keang 
j>uh k'heu, it cannot b said; i ^fe k'faeutsew, to re- 
cede and approach, twa oppc&itcs; j^ $- k'heu she, to 

le*Ve the world, *o dxff#;?^F ^'^ eu n ^ ell ^ ast J ear ; 
^ ^ k'heu how, afte^waKls. 

^r T'hae, to wait, stands in our acceptation of the 
word in conversation, apparently without any meaning: 

as ^ jj^F 3i- | i , rao f fcae yaou shwo lae, just as I 


y6 fha^aou puh k neu, gno y5 i'hat- 

yaou k'heu, 1 wish apt to gc, and yet I wisk tQ go xsg 

CHAP. V, AritiLlAUE6, 85 

v Ian fhaek'heih, having no appetite; 
gi\o k^heu t'hfce lae, I went and am come again; 
*JE $S i^- *>e fhae yaou fhan hae, do you wish tc 
fathom the sea? This word is used in many i&ber in- 
stances, and is generally fallowed by-f| yaou. 
-ft Kan, to dare: g -$t k'he kan, how dare? Fol- 
lowed byjjc she, it means perhaps, I guess; as *$L ?k 
^f\ jji ika& she puh lae, perhaps he will not come;^ 
Jt^ Jill ^ ^ an s ^ e P been gno, I guess he has deceived 
me:' or join fejff pa: as^ *fa ^ %Q ^ )& ^ kaa 
pa fuh che taou sin tsing, perhaps hehas no knowledge 
of my love. 

If lAing, means to play, and trifle, er to effect in a 
had sense, and is variously used: as ^ j& ^t ^ ^ 
lung t'ha woo nae ho, he brought him into difficulties; 
|| ^ ^ ^ mae lung show ^wan, to show off one's 
cleverness; ^ JjjjL lunghwae, to spoil; If ~jjf lung yew, 
to lead astray : and so on in many other instances. 

$3 Pa, alone; or joined to $ k'hung, or preceded by 
*+ chih, indicates a probability: as ^ >{& ^ ^ Ip 
k'hung pa we k*he shin, he has perhaps not yet risen; 
*lfi 3[ T 11 -fj- P a taou P ua ^5 we s ^ a ^ probably not 
be able to reach the pkce,^ >f& 3t ^1 ^. T chih 
pa foo ts'hin sze leaou, the father is probably dead, 

^ King, occurs frequently in the sense of do^ and 
many times in a way which appears untranslatable; as 
"-fj- ^-hingjoo, to order ;^ -jj;^ 4JT yen hing cha 
na, to institute severe investigation and seizure; gp ^ 
jj& ^ tscih bing neen wkn, to institute immediate 
search; tf ^ hing tseang, to bestow praise. 

9. Among the auxiliaries may be enumerated #| 
i^na; pif k'ho, "^ ts'hing,^hew,Jfef pe^. fy N^ng, is 
-used in the sense of cnn, may, able, to do; as ^g f^ 
aang ts6,can do; ^ ^ nang seay, can write; % ^ 
^- yew n&ng hing, able to do; ^ ^ ^ g t^f kepuh 
o^ng tsze poo, beco^ild v.^-t feed himself when hungry 

?T K'ho, in the sen-se of may, or can: as Jl ^T ^ 
^> ^ IF ^ih k'ho tung k'how, puh k'ho tung 
show, you may spe*]*, but you must ut)t act: i e, scotd v 
but apt beat; fe ^ >j ye w to pdh k'ho, why rrot^ 


?f 1& k'ho few, or in conversation *f M k'bomo, eau 
it be 4 ? and now and then;~*!f ^ k'hoshe, may ftbe?i^ 
*? ,^-lif twan hoo puh k 'ho, on no account Often 
when standing before verbs, it gives them the adjective 
signification : as W *j fc'ho.gac. car, beloved, amiable; 
-if & k'ho MB, hatefiu Salable ;1?" Ji k'ho keen, 
it is evident; "S" i|~ 41 / % i^-V^c yaw shin mo 
iBg keu, \vhat pi oofs are there, fr t; -gr *$| yew k'ho 
a-vv^y chow, could anything he so aete^tatee; ^ A ^ 
k'lbo jin e,s*ieh as people would iike. It often indi- 
the imperative: asyfr "5" ; li ^ ^ ^ joo k'ho 
ua i:ha lae, go and fetch some tea; # pj ^ 
; ni? k'hc tso yih tso, sit a wttik, 1J J#. k'hc- e^ 
^f El|! ^Jk bo eh wo k, .fflay gain m<iey; 
r/. t)e ead of sentences "if 3t k 'he ray. means that any- 
thing is practicable or admissible; as j $% *f $L 
bhihyenVho yay, it is allowable to saiokej^ if k'ho 
k'ho, just &at In conversation & If se&ou k'ho, "trif- 
ling; H Jf> ^T wo P^ n k j ho, most certabily. 

-f| Tsing, in the sense of to ask, request, is often used 
by the polite Chinese to express the imperative : sa 
~f| 4j tsing tso, pray sit down, ^ ^ ^ S!R g I^e, pray 
came, || $j tsing w^n, I beg to enquire; "^ ^| ^ 
^ tding pe k'han f ih k'han. let me have a lof/k, 

^ Hew, meaning to cause, to r^ 4 to leave off: an d 
-$} P 6 ^^ to ^ e l 6 *^ f are often used tr> indicate the 
negative imperative: as ^ || 7^ ? hrv>- yaoii wang 
, do not forget; ^ >{f} ^ hew 14 ?ie, do not fear 
- ^ ^fe hew tih kwo keen, do'nt be too 
&. ^t ife' It 'ffc ^ w keaou fha .seaou hwa, 
3o not let him make gam<; talk; jg[ J| ^ ^ |>^ yaoii 
sac cho, do n^, believe: ^ ^ J^ j^ peS yaou 
c ^iV7A, da not teilit 

10. The ibliowiog^ wa,-J| pa, ^ t^ii, kwti, 
^ yih, ^ peBi, and ja ching > are all words descriptive 
of the past tense; as -done } finished, &e. 

ThuH ^ ^ keatig -wan, having said; ^ ^ wsm 
pan, having maoagM ; jt H WTO p^% fu% prepared^ 
complete;^ ^ wan 


3H Thing pa, having heard ;-|| T pa leaou, 
done, made an end of ; 3f H chih pa, dismis^d: ^ 
^Q pa she, to desist from the examination;!! ^ pa 
she, shut the market; ^ X pa km g, lea^e off wori. 
Jt H Tsinsha, killed them all; ^ ^L tste too, ex- 
tirpate tfe whole ; ^ ^ ^ $t IT pisg tsiih keae 
e*n- tei!., m<? soldiers were all killed; ^ | shih tsin, 
Living eaten the whole. 

*J?l Kwo y topass, ?;xceed, is used in combination; 

thus j ill sbih kwo s hsvfatf vi ~j ^ U kwc 

Uaou 5k> jih^ having ph-s*ed several feys; ^ ^> M" 

>^ pe t'ha mwan kwo, was deceived by him, jj?- ^ 

^ -^ pub kwo pwan ncen-, uot more than half "a year, 

^L Yih. to come to a close, to slop, is thus combined: 
as -^ lisan yih, having scattered: 3} ^f tt yih 
taou tsan yih, with one blow he cut off his head; f^ 
^ M Sfe ho yflfcts&e che r how has it come to this; ^ 
*| yen yih, haviiig done speaking. 

^ Peib, to terminate, is thus joined with othe? 
terms: as | J^ hv;apeih, having finished speaking; 
^ ^ yuenpeih, having expressed a wish; ^ jj 
X ^P }ib n ^ en UT *k kung peib, within a year the work 
was finufned; j|~ ^ tsir?. peih, having completed. 

^ Ching, to perfect, is thus used : as $ $t ching 
cho, finished doing it; $r; ^ ching keaou, finished the 
intercourse; JGJf ^ >fe ciiit'g puh k'he, weuld not ef- 
fect; ]$ i4 chiug tsaou, fully constructed. 

1 1. Those which follow jg show,^ keen, ^ tsaoa, 
ff ling, and pt kih, are words that frequently describe 
ihe passive. Thus ^sho^, no receive, J * show 
hae, to be injured; $ $$- show juh, ta be i^sulied; % 
^ show dioo, tx> be killed;^: ^Hj shcwhl:ir ? or f; ^ 
ebow tsuy, to be punished, 

JL Keen, to sec: asj? ^ keen seaou, to be laughed at y 
or laughable ;J ^ ke^uieaBg, to be excused; JJi % 
keen sew, to be ashamed ;J, ^ keen k'he, to be re- 
jected; X JL f ^ puh keen hwau pe, not to us 

gf Tsaou, to meet: as if % |[ tsaou k'biu hwo s 
to be ;eJHged ; ?ft ^ tsaou. t-sib wei, to be environed 


by the rebels; y| >f tsacw <* r to be beaten. \IL Yu, 
which means also u> meet, it frequently used in the 
same manner: as \!L b |f ^ -^ ^ yu kwan rhe life 
tsco, to &e oppresses! by the Mandarins. 

^ff Ling, to receive, is sometimes used in the passive 
sense: as ^gj f^li&g joo, to receive commands, to he or- 
dered; *rji ^ lin< kaou, to be instructed. 

ft* Keih, to eat, is thus used in a few instances; as 
^ ^ keih yih king, to be astonished; tfLJjtj keifc 
kwei, to be injured; & ^ 1^ ^ keih sin shew koo. 
to suffer distress. % Wei, to be, sometiH>eo assuaies thf 
passive form: as ^ ^ ^ ^ wei t'ha so hae, injuyfed 
by him. 

12. ^F Tseang, to take, is frequently used in sen- 
tences wlrere it is scarcely translatable: as ^ Jfa- ^ 
"^ ^ A tseaag ko tsiug shwo yih peen, he gave a 
detail of the whole :$ ^fc T ^ tee^ a'Jba hea yo/ 
he put him in prison; 4$p ^ ^ ^ tseang tseen keaou 
fha, pay him the money ;^ ^ SJ| ^ ^ tseang 
jooydb taou chaou luh, to transcribe an order; $ \^ 
; ~F J? >^ tseang peen t'heen hea sin ciie,&ought foj 
him in the whole Empire. ( )ften, however, it is used 
to Indicate the ftitee tense: as 7^ ^tseang tso, wil] 
d;^ M tseang seay, will write; % J^ f9" ^. tseang 
yo ho wang, where are you going ?^J- $f *- kt 
iseaug gan ch'bfih, which way shall we carry out the 
plan; % $f ^r i % woo tseang nae ho, what shall i 
do: ^ ^ tseang* lae. hereafter, in future ; $f- ^C ^ang 
keih, almost, nearly ;4j| ^c ^ $fc tseang tsze wan 
keaou, Laving near!? paid the wh>ie; -^ j E >f v^ 
tseang kin sr.n feang she, about the third watch. 


13. They are the following: ^ yew, ^ nae, ff ke.. 
^ wei, ^ she, and JL tsae. 

^ \>w, there is, also to have: as ^ A ^ Y ew P a 
shwd, there are some who say; ^ |fr yC U yew 
"huenjuh k'how, there are setne vjessete tb^t have en- 


tercel the harbour; $r % %jr so yew hing le, the 
baggage that was there ; A % ^- *j| ye* yfw how 
tsing, there was a strong affection; ^ ^ -f -*F kin 
yew shih neen, it is now teir years ago; -fe % 4 
wei ehe yew yay, there never has been. 

In the signification of have it occurs in w frequent- 
ly: a$^ || A ^ ^ yew tseen, jin ke&e lung, if you 
have money, all peeple will respect you;^ f yew $ze> 
have business, occupied ;>^ J^ yew woo, have or cot 
have ; the former is the positive, the latter the negative 
verb substantive :$ ft & jfc fl yew jih sze woi> 
jih, >vhca you are in possession of anything, think on 
the day when you will have it not; ^ ^ yew le> it has 
sonv- reason, or it is? reasoimble:^ ^ yew le, to have 
politeness, to be polite; ^ 5% yew been, to have limits, 
afew;ifc ^ yew soo, to have a number, several; *3t 
^" wun yew^havc wot; in conversation ^ % we yew 5 
not yet have. It fa also used to indicate the past tense; 
as |f Jfc yew \eang, they hava said; $&$%<$* 
king yew ehih Ibg, he lias already ordered it. 

^ Nae, is used th&s; jft ^ A gtio ae jin, I am a 
*nan;75 Jt ^ naeta 1160. he was greatly incensed ; 
^ 3j T $ *? na nae ^^ a ^ eu ? ^ e was dismounting 
from the carriage;^. A 7^ ^ 3JL "$' urh jin 
pC?h fuh yen. the two men did not speak agaio. 

^ He, occurs in the following connection: as -g 
A he haou jin, he is a good man; J} ^ j| y^ 
heleangkew,itislongago^J^ ^ ill $ * 3 
we he tung sze ehe taou loo, it is the way to lie with 
him j& >$? ^ ^ woo so he wee, there is no property. 

^ Wei has a great variety of sigoific^tkms: is ^ J^ 
wci)m., to be a man, or to aet the man;.^ )>5? jg. Jb 
wei jcih woo wei, it must be done;|||.^ nan wei, to 
make difficult, to atmoy;^[ ^ yew v/oi to h;we any- 
thing to do 1 ig. ' woo wei, ta have nothing to do. It 
is sorcetimc .-: coimeeted with >1 e, to cou^ider, tc view: 
as W ^ " A. e we * hing jin, to coiwider him iis a 
sage. It is often used to indicate the pas^tvc: AS 3| A 

^)f ^ wei jin so ban, to be hated by rn*>n : ^ jjg ^ 
^ wei chungf so sin. to be believed bv iiil;, g -g $^ 


wei sih fcv me, M awa) by lust (See also the Prepo* 
sitions.) ^, She, ib thus employed: asJe Jl ^r she 
hwaiig ^e, it Is the Emperor, Jfi ^ -iP J& pub she joo 
tszc. it is not thus 5 ^ j|i] ~ ^ shetsih yen she, when 
it is so. say that it is so; Jg ^fr ^- jo she hoo, is it thus *? 
?ll^C i% & ^ she ching ho sin hoo, indeed what 
heart is this ! 

$L Tsae, is thus <ombined: 7\i ^ -fe- t'ha yew tsac, 
he is there :^ JL puh tsae, he is absent; 3 ^ jjp ^g 
foo tsae i\a !e, where .'bcs the fit' er ^ivrclit ^- >fL Q 
^ sze tsae muh teen ? the busmess is before your 
eyes, present;^ ^ ^ tsae bug meen, to be in one's 
presence; Is 4L tS2etsae,tobeone ? ^:rMf; ",f- & J^ T. 
puh tsae hwa hea, need not be told. It ought to he 
remarked, thai $L tsae, always indicates the place of be- 
ing in, (See also the Prepositions.) 

Notwithstanding the variety of these verb*, thr nrp 
often left out where our laneuage would veqi -- ; - ; 

^ 4 H A gnto chimg *i*v6jiB, 1 am a Chinese. 


1 c The distinction we draw between the neuter 

and active verbs does not, from the nature of the Ian- 

^e, sxistim Chinese; in a few instances, however, 

mark Is \vritlen above the w or a > indicate its hav^ 

ipg adopted aa active- signification. 

15 The passive, as we have already remarked is 
indicated by J^ keen -^ show, }A tsaou, and other 
*rerfcs. Besides these forrna we may ?ti}l mark the fol- 
b^ing &1fc A k'he yii jio, or,^ J A k'heyujin, 
pised by men. So sko ^ 5t ^ "l> ? ! nrnng ke keaoa 
i^un, taught by him, ^ j: ^ ^ rnung ke paoa hoo, 
protecte i by hini c 

^ ?e, is also frequently used 111 tiiis sense: as^ 
S ^ 3^ P e mow sn ^ cnfc *iH^d fay some body ; ^ 
W. ? ir ^ P^ Iwan keun &o sha. killed by the re- 
nous army; ^ ^ ^ tsin pe sl^ou, entirely &m*t; 
P c fJr tseang t&o, pttrced with oae 

C'HAP. V, MOODS. 91 

tornit of the spear;)*, ^1 W~ tfc 3 ~& fan pc t'hs 
shwoleaou gno, on the co'Ttrary it was told me by binr 
So also $b yewvawd occasionally @ vin: as t& 1$L JIQ 
vew t/hu k'ha' ^h, esUliibhod by him: g] 3L || 
yin heung pa lurig, denied l^ ti<\ b- T* 1 Kiay 

weii also to notice phrases like the following: .A. 
M ^ jini yew woo teih, or A iSf ^ ^ j^ so 
heen chay, hated or detested by men; *pj~ >^ ,^ 
^" ^ J\ k'ho lecn wang kaoush^jin, the man H'UO 
S falsely accused and killed, is to be pitied; |ft $f f^. 
shwuy so she che chay, by whom was he scut? 
^ ^ she tse^ng teih wuh, these are stoiea 
^^; ^' Uoulacchc ho. .stolen articles. 
3)5 f& 1^ ;^ heguo tets6 chttv, > done bv 

my broiaei 


16. The indicative requires no comment, and of 
conjunctive we have already spoken in the case of *J 
k'ho, which indicates a possibility or probability; at* 
W ^ k'ho t&o, it may do; If ^J k'ho hiug, it may 
be clone 

Th^re exist many conditional particles, which circum* 
scribe the conjunctive Such asjfH joo,^ jo^ tang:, 
?f t ! baug4f yoo,^ shg, ^ kow. ^ she, $i Vng, 
and ^ hwo. To give a distitict idea of their use, w.$ 
shall exemplify the various modes in which they arc 

17. ^ Joo, andj j6, are nearly synonymous: as 
itH ^ ^. J^. joo yew yin tseen, if I had money; j|JI 
l!f ^ j sn taou,ifthe letter arrive. They are al 
jso combined; as^j 3& . ]fc joo jo foo sze, if my fa- 
ther were to die, j Jo, is more frequently used than 
any other, either alone or combined as^fS 31 tang jo, 

' J5 she, 4 ft jo ke s * .* kwo jo,^ Jfc J6 

tang jo pun ting, if he Jo not listen ; 

jo ibc pfih ching ping> if >he peace be a&l io*uvtauted; 


6 fee wan tseun,if it be finished ;& 
vl; ^5t ^ kwo jo chihfa tsung sze, if incfeed he 
adhere to the letter of the law and follow' up the busi- 
ness; jfe ^ & > jo she ch'huh leih, if he exert 
himself; j $; ^p ^ jo jeu k'hag tso.ifhe will 1 do 
it; $ 3a % jfc 36 f 3$ jo ehay yew sin keu tseue 
.jjno, if he have a heart to forsake me, ^<* Jcrc, is also 
used with 'K kea, to convey an idea of pvoTyiifcility ; as 
flSL."flfc ; ^ ^5 kea joo we lib Ie, f;uppcsiDg you 
could not make money: -^ ^ kea jen. aHcij^. <^, kea 
ling, both signify suppose the same idea is conveyed by 
f^U pe joo, and^ ^ pe jo as^f ^1 T> * $ 
^js ^ p? j^o pulj tseang ke shoo iac, if fee da yet 
bring the boek;^ ^ T 5 3f> ^f jjt pe J6 kwan 
ytue; piib kwan so. if'lhcMandaricg do not restrain him, 
18, j^ Tanc^ 3 ^lH tang, are ^ynouymiK^ : -jfe.- ^ 
tri^rig fcwd, ai tH^fjf |^ taagjein, CBS^TS ^f; ^ $t ^t Ig, 
t^g k&a king wet, if you wa to discbey; ^ ^ ^ 
^ teogb^dptth&teg-s if he 4o not go:^ ^ ig ^ 
yf^ X. taugjsttfuh^puhtbg^butif'kappmess fte 

.of -smyr iffipcrt^; as 

sin iub ujrk koo shew : i>uK just as if owe 

cnectal effon., ari<l took otu? to ooe*s feet aod 
sfewo yoo we leauu, <*re h- had done 
yoofe*h^ it still may dc;$fjfe ^ 
f oo jo pah fao piag e as if aot endowed with 
principles;^ "^ jfc >T -it) "% yoo &be pub 
e, if perhaps not accotduig- to CKZ -> wfehes, 
t ' Shg, ^t * *W h v5, md ft Ht ^hfe Ac, are used 
% the same sense: as H: |f % J~ |i ^bwoye^ tsaa 
, if iperhaps he have talent,^ it % H ^ ^ 
s*!ie chimb mun woo s^e, if p*Aaps fee may have 
gone out and attended to his business. 
if Kow, bear* the same sense: as if ^ ^p ^ ^ 
H^ay tsze,ifhedo -not neglect to write: 
kow uh jeru if it" be not thu-*; ^ 4f ^ 
icow ysw che yu tih 7 if he have an 
to virtue 


*, is mostly used in connection wiitifJt she, 
bui sometimes occurs alone- : as{fL-|& pf ^ she >>oo 
yulo, if it do not rain:^ $t f[ ^ & <fe k*a sh^ 
hwang te g&n chun, if the Emperor grant it. 

$fe Tstimg, or'JK jK feung jen, are to be met with 
as $t <?*" H f| -t- ^f tsung kin jih taou pun heang. 
suppose I were to arrive to day at my native place _. ^ 
^ J^- ]tj tsungjen shmg teih, suppose he were to > 
vercomc the enemy, 

^f Hwo. and 9g J$ fatr6 chay, perhaps, likely, if 
may be, bear the same sense: as ft $ ^ ^ $& hwo 
jtja hw6 puli jen, it may be so ; or it may not be K>: $% 
J& $. 88 J3 ^ w ^ c ^ a y shing keen hwuy kwo ? he 
may pss'hapB avail himself of die opportunity and return 
to his country 

19. Words !ike$C kan, ^ iR to k?^,.^C ^ feau 
ehe;^>]& kau pa, 01 jt ^& chili pa,^ J f6 kuaa* pa, 
* ^ ^ P a P^ h ^* ^P ^ and htopah*^ often 
indicate the conjunctive. (See auxiliary ^eibs j So also 
!> ^p to twan, S ^ paois kwan, end ^ ^ kwau 
femg^ as^- ^ ^ ^L M S, ^/ to frvan we k^ib che 
woo &etm s fei is most likely (he may be) not yet 5ti jests 
of age, ^ ^ ^ -^ J ^ v> ^ tsing feew hao-y ltsitu 
it m&y b" immediately vtell U ^ %j jfi] ^ PAXJ 
yew le ta, he may i>e successful, or it is U&ciy 
will be successful These forms are e^du&ivelf 
in conversation. 

20 T^ $p Choo fei and J^: ^ choo Eeaou, staaS 
for i^/a^v as St ^ U| ^fe 1$ ^noofeik'haekinkang, 
unless you relax the prohibitions $ Jfe S^ i* jfc. 
1& *5~ $L c ^ lao ^ ^ eu tse ^ e tih teze yay, unless yt 
irvAfry, youc^za have no children;]^: ^ ^ ^ f^ ^ 
choo ieacu shay te tso wan, unless my yon-ngei brotkei* 
writs the csoay. 

2L Jt f Sho .fbo t * ^ shoo ke.#, snd 
yih, cccur in the sense of perhaps, as JS. -^ ^ ^ 
ioo k'hoyay, it may perhaps do ^| H^? ^ If ^ 
shoo ke k lie ching tseeu wan^, .he ma\ fciliaps lure 
gono on liiS journey and proceeded ^ *- )^ ^ 
yih ching sze, lie may iKjhap* finish the business 


Say, although, requires Die conjunctive: as^. -fr 
suy hing tih, although he practice virtue. 

22. We quote still the following modes of convey- 
ing the sense of the conjunctive Jffc $$ <&, $ Yuen 
joo chang show, may you live long; A F $ * ^ 
^ Jf /I -& she k'ho jinyay, shun puhk'ho jin yay t 
if this can be endured, what cannot be endured '? ^jjt ^ 
3fe -.18 s "J ^ $5 nan taou gno tso ieaou pub eh ing, 
is it possible that I could have erred'? ( -^ 3i Nan 
taou, either with or without ^ jfe puh ching, is thus 
frequently used, while it is difficult to translate it by a 
corresponding term in our language.)-^, if . ^g $ 
^| "$ nan taou hwan sze e he giio r should she still 
think about me? ~JJL xj jt ^ JL ^ tfc nan taou nyu 
yew heung puli ching. can it be that the woman led 
you astray; -jfc *t ?I ^ * & W 9| Jfc t'ha (*iy 
tliow t'ha t guo yay tuy t how joo, if he might resist hiro, 
Imitiht also resibt you ? ^. j^Alt ^ ^ % fi ke 
puh tsaou hwa, gno puh i.aog choo, it he laave no luck, I 
cannot stay;, y % ** % fa W fc ^ y'g e che 
yew, tseih tsseyih sze, if any bad action were to be de- 
nounced, it is this, $| ^ JL '$L %? A > ^ che ke 
mmg, tsew jay jin cheuoo v if you were to point out hss 
uame, you would only incite the anger of thers. 


23. The Chinese language has no particular way 
of expressing this mood; thus the forms ^ jj; ig gno 
i>ae seay, 1 love to write, ^ ffe ^t tsingt'ha iae, request 
him to come; are a mere juxta-positions of words. If- 
a stress be laid upon the \vord ^o of our infioitivre, the 
sen^e is conveyed by $ e, f che, and 5t >^l che e: as 
$i %fc ^sk M % %, gno keih joa e yung cbc, i gave 
it you to use it } ^ ^ ^ ^ 51 ^ 1^ ^voo keaou 
seang kung che e pe, I called you, Sir, to prepare; 3l 

-T S A IL Xt ^ f& keuntszegaejin 5 cheepoufuh, 
the superior .man loves mankind, in order to spread hap- 
s amongst them, ^ ^ ^, *J ^ woo che c i loo. 


cbe, I came to call him; # j, ^L - ~& ebwan t'ha 
baou, be though? it well to gladden others, 


24. To what we have already said, whet) treating 
of the auxiliary verbs, we may add the following 

The Imperative is expressed by^Tfc/ho: as Sfe-^T 
3fc ft joo k'ho seen yhi, do you drink first: "5" tt 
k'ho cL'huh xnniu go out of doors. But tris form i* 
useJ towards inferiors, seldom to equals, and never to 
superiors; in which latter casefff ts'hing, pray;^ ke. 
beg: and^ wang, hope; are substituted. 

25. To express let, the Chinese employ severs! 
words: as Jj| -ftfc-f t ? hing t'ha tso. let him do it; & 
^ ^ ^[ ^ 3$ yew tih yangshartg ganpan, let the 
Hong merchants manage this well; ^ ^ - yunggno 
fe'LeiL let me go;^| ^"^ping t'ha shwo, let him 
talk:f ^^^ j* n foo choo fan, let the woman boil 
her rice; $L JJL ^ ^ yu ke tsin yay, let him enter; 
H^f ^ J^. ^ heu tseang cho pwau, let the artisan ex- 
cavate the rock ; f i ^ $ %& jin ping k'he ting, let 
them get up the anchor; /^ ^ Jt ^ chun gno k'he 
ching,let me goon my journey; ^t it ^ fj- yun che 
poo hing. let them walk on foot, 

26. Often no other term than the simple verb is used 
to indicate (he Imperative: as ^ ^ ^ "ffe T^tso, 
gno miDg yu joo, sit down, I shall distinct! y inform? you. 
A nide manner is sometimes employed by adding $| pa. 
attheeiid; as^Sc ^ ^ joo k'heu pa, you beoif! go 
asvay ! Whilst on the other hand, the ; >< 4 bins; 
happy, fortunate, adds urbanity to the eipre^lc*: : as 
Jife ^ ?4 ^ ^ ^ show shih po le hing e, recrive 
my trillii)g' present: %= & $&J& 3$ hing \\oo keu 
tsei)egno, do not reject mc;^ ^ hing t'hing, listen. 

27. JL Tseay 5 is very frequently used to indicate the 
imperative-: as y jt ^ n joo te&iy keen k'how, do 
you be silent: A %& ^ t hing ming k'heu, let 
us hear the orders a^d b< ^f r olio wed by a negative 


it signifies do not: as JL ^C ^f -}4 tseaypuh k'hotein. 
do not enter; JL J| ^ ^j-tseay mo so hing, don't go 
so fast. 

28 Of'fk hew, und^ pee 1 , we have already spo- 
ken. f| Mo, ^ wuh, and ^S-woo, are used in ihe 
same manner: as j| tJL r*S6 shwo, don't say * ^ || 

f\vuh wei nan., don't be afraid of difficulties^ ~& ^L 
vroo fan fa, don't transgress the law, 3+ -fc Puh 
yaou. i& used in the same sense: as ^ ^ 55- pub yaou 
kuh. don't weep :^fH^gDoyaoujoo seay, I want you 
to wnie or write. 


29 speaking the Chinese have no express 
mode of conveying the participle; and in all the cases 
where the genius of our language requires this inflexion 
tLe mere Chinese verb stands instead thereof. Term.?; 
like the following may easily be explained: as ^ f 
1ST !F j tsoteih ho S2e, what ^re you doing ? g ^ 
l^f ^T % >'-" u shwuy so iriing chay^by whom was thh 
ordered, ^ ^ g^ ^ l yun lae teuitung se, trans 
ported goods; i 5fe g]> %* ^P ^ ^ le;h, tso. go, 
keae puh k'ho ning, sending, sitting, or sleeping he was 
at rest. 


30, The modes of asking a question are exceeding^ 
)y various, and for funher information we refer the rea- 
der to the Interrogative Particles. Here we may, how* 
ever, notice the following instances: as ^ $L %* & 
joo lae puh lae, do you come, 01 do you not come *? ^ 
# Ifc % t, A ^ kliefei tso jih lae che jin 
loo, is he noi the raan who camt yesterday ? ~&f $ -?f 
^ k s l?.o ehing foo, can he walk?^U ^ -^ A 
^ ^ j ( > bo till yu jin wang lae, how can I have in- 
with wen ^ 

CHAP, V. TIMB. 97 


31. The Chinese verb is devoid of those nice dis- 
tinctions which reader other languages so accurate m 
expressing time. It is true, that (here are a number rf 
auxiliaries and particles to convey the idea a: th* ten- 
ses, but only then, when a stress is laid upon tfee lii?M 
that anything happened or was done, arc thewe wor<k 
used: 'J| seay, may therefore signify, to write, 
write, wrote, or have written. 


32. 3*5 -fe? Gns seay, means 1 write, and every Bo- 
ther vetb thus used, without &*iy additional 
may denote the present tense; but if the act of 
just now taking place i& to be marked, the 
particles serve to indicate it: ^ kio, BOW; 
kin, at present; |^|^= been she, at this present time; 
$L fe been tsae, here present ;Jt,||, heen tseea, m 
one^s presence;^ ^{ heen mdh, before one's ey^s; 
within ^ joo Ma, tfi ^ urh liin, f} ^ miih kia, 
-J ^ yu kin, ail of which signify now. ThusJiL 
jft $r heen tsae hing loqu he walks, or is now 
^jj ^ ^ 1$^ joo kin yew tseen, he has money, or 
now has money, jjE * yen tseen, g ~fi muh hea, 
T k'Mhhea/^^ teeth she, or^ ^ 
when put before tiie verbs gives the same meaning, 


33- The remarks made respecting tibe present 
ply also to this tense. Of the particles used to iudietite 
ikfec idea cf the itnjeifect, the folfevriag are the 
freqvxnt, ^ Fiag,^ || &ng tsae, ^ 


j $L ehir:^ che.JE JL ching tsae, $L <he tsze, 
^ |S. she che. x_ ||| shih tsae,^ *j shih che, and 
J. *H shih tang, all signify ing just now, just about, 
at the point. Tmis j $& ^ >fc Bj|,.. e ^* n P aou s ^ a 
che keen, whilst he was throwing stones; ( J ching, 
generally commences the sentence, and H keen, stands 
at the eiid:) & ^ : ^ * ^ ke lae che 
she, yu pun tsae kea, when he came I was not at home; 
$.* 3fe ^ ^ t'halae, gno tsae k'heu, when he 
came, I had just gone away ;^ T ^ 3? ^ Y& ba, 
yu feug wang, just when it rained, 1 set off; ^ ||| j&:_ 
]^, ehih tsae kung teih, just when they attacked the 
enemy: j$f tfe ^ j^ shechetung Iung 5 it was just 
then in the Rjidst of winter ; 3fc i i$ ^ ^ gnok'heu 
teih she how, when I went aw&y. 

In narratJYeg, the mere verb without any additional 
partickis use d to convey the idea of the imperfect kctaM* 
as JL ^r ^ ^ -fc ^r . k'hung ts^t- tsuh nt ; en 
tseih shih san, Oonfaeins dica at the age of 73; $ %l 
Hit M li ^Kn *A tsaou cfcuen chih, the merchants 
built *oaie vessels. 

There are a great Diany other expressions to indicate 

the imperfect tense: for instance $_ "^ ^ I? ^ 

4 ^ tsuag taeen ko kwo mih kih tseih hwuy, in 

.fwtney times the learned of every nation assembled 



34. Besides the words we have enumerated amongst 
the auxiliaries, such as 3p peih,]** yih, ^1 wan, Ice. 
the following particles deserve notice, as designating 
the past tense; J lesou, e. y ^ king 9 L ke 5 ^ tsang, 
f shang.i ft e king, -f; &*& kmg,f l^ts^ng 
king, *^ ^ tseen king. 

^J Leaou, stands always at (he end cf sentences : as 
$Jt 7 ts ^ leaou^done; ^ ^ T $eay tsxe leaou, hav* 
ijig writtea; ^4 ^ ,^ P<5 t j ha tea leaoa, blamed by 


iu E. and fe ke may be instanced thus: -? ft /f 
^ -^ * yu ke [>ag u*h shih she, I have already 
boil ed and eaten it; , ^ ^ ^ 3 e pan le sze leaou, 
having managed the business : & J ' e che, has arrived; 
d ^ JL It e tin keen e, it h&s l>oen found, 

IS King, and|i J6. been'., king, omir as follows: 
15 ft Ifr king hingyu, I have ordered it; |g, $j^ $ 
7& ^L been king sze hw&n. Iwan, the business has been 
brought into confusionll UNeS king, i^iost frequeptly 
occurs in edicts: as -J %OL ^c & ^C ^ neg^ing p&e 
ping kung keih, I have already appointed soldiers to at- 
tack, ^f j(S Tang king, is also met with; as^ ^ 

^ jfe ^ ^ tang king -weikwS choo tszehae, we 
have removed from the Enipire this evil. Also & ^ 
e king: as 6 M. W ^ ^ e king foo t^ chuen, he 
has already embarked. 

^ Ts^ng, is not uncommon: as ^ ^ ^fe. 7 tsSng 
shih fan leaou, having eaten ric6;-^ $. M 3ji ts&ng 
king k'he chiug, he has already gone on ths journey; 
^ 1^ ^L ^ t'ha hang chuen, he has already 
sailed.^ ^ pub t&^ng,^ ^ we tsng, occur in th 
sense of no* y*tf; as L ^ i 3^ we ts^ng shang 
t'heen, he has not yet ascended to heaven; ^ ^ ^ 
^ puu tskng tseih hwuy, they were not yet assembled. 

^ Shang, may also be noticed: as ^ ?] 3 1 ^J8 $ 
shang yiu yu chaou nuy, he has led him into court 
But this particle is more used with the negative: a ~ 

^ >P 1$ we shang puh le, has never been without 
gain; ^ '4" 3* f& we shaixg puh kan ? never feiled in 
being moved by it^jL^r^^^^^ k'hung 
tsze shang wei wei le e, Confucius was once a com- 
missioned officer; ^ i" ^ Jf A ^ ^ gno shang 
yu foo jin shw6 kwo, I have spoken with the woman. 

Mark also the folio wing sentence: as ^ JL ^ yew 
keen fow, have you seen him or not; v ^ ^ -ffc muh 
yew sM t^ha, have not yet killed h|ni; g^ H. ^ 
jib ts w^u, i< wa* fiiii&hed yesterday. 

100 TEffSRS. CHAP. V. 


35. By the use Of the particles indicating the Im- 
perfect terse, and those of the perfect, the pluperfect is 

Mug ts&6 yabu ming, shifemuh tseang e king kan 
leaou, just when he was going to give directions, 
it happened that die carpenter bad already cut down 
&et,ree;]t % Jfr"' Jfc.. & & W shih tsae teou 
ck*ng. heu v :g e eVhuh mun, on his arrival at the city, 
tny brother liad already gone out of the fate;^ i 
^ & j% A M \H * e sSng lae she, ping jin king 
kwo she. when the physician came, the patient had al- 
ready died. 


36. We stall not here repeat what we have already 
<aid about the auxiliaries $& peih, and^ tseang, which 
are used to convey the idea of the future tense, Words 
tike the following $f ^ teeang lae, ^ ^ how lae, 
JK *Z & tsae ehe how, >i ^ ehow,^ ^ *ze..haw f - 
and^ tsew, serve likewise to indicate catling time: as 
II ft vfe *$L '*jf l ^ A/tsie tsze olie how puh 
uh sin jin, after this I sh&ll aever believe people %aSn; 
-^ $i -fr M 3f & how lae tsae yew fang ft, after 
that we shall again have some means of managing the 
scatter; % ^ ^ % f fk tseang lae puh yaou ts5 
Iwaa, afterwards, or its fiitore, he will not give rise to 
dbturbances;^ % ^ ~3& %~ % tsae yui& te tsew 
k*he shin, lie wUf -go -on his way at tfe^ end of the month; 
W S ^ & 7 ft hwuy ^ v kwo, ting tsae hea seuu, 
he will certainly return to his country daring the last 

-teew ft t'ha ? if be revenge himself I shall punish 

you come, I hall not go. Of all fee teu*<*5 tlvb 
rtle particul^iized, nor arc ^ tseaisg, ijt peife, 
and dhuuar gfammttkal j>artieles always put, whcu our 


language peremptorily demands them. 'The Chinese 
lire in the past and present, and care tittle fa fuhmty, 
and tins may account for their having so few terms to 
convey the meaning of coniing time 


37. For th perspn we refer te the personal pro- 
noun, and only remark, that the pronoun is often left 
out, indeed it w considered to be inherent in the verb, 
while its omission gives rise to much obscurity. 

Hie impersonal verbs are like the following; as 7; 
f hea yu, it rains; T 'fj: hea seu 5 it snows; j| ' H 3k 
she kwac gno, it concerns us;^ ^ jfa $jk she ling 
gno hwatn, it occasions me joy: they are soir^tmsea dk- 
tiugiiif hed irctn the others by the addition of /# ^ 
peih seu, must; and i e, ought 

38. Of number w merely observe that the Chi- 
nese verb is never affected by it In our remarks a- 
bove t if?e have not spoken of the indicative mood, be- 
cause i| is the simple form of the verb, without the ad- 
dition of any grammatical particle; the potential and 
optative moods are imaginary forms of the verb, which 
have no existence HI the language, and have been in- 
vented to suit Chinege grammar to that of western na- 
tions. Should the student not find any of the gramma- 
ticai distictions explained which other tongues exhibit, 
he has only to refer to the particles, where some further 
elucidation will be given, 



1. b? a fev? instances the adjective becomes an ad- 
verb by adding $; jeu. acd^t joo, to it: as ^ ^ f& 


Riang jeij, vaistly;^ ^; haou jen, well; It $fe 
jen, beautifully; >} "tSj jttt *$ seunseun joo y ay, 
sincerely; ^L DSLr&t <& hang hang joo yay, unceremo- 
niously, without shew. Adverbs are also fo*ied by 
prefixing $ e, to a substantive: as gt H e, justly; 
$ fi. e le, politely. In other instances the adjective 
is very generally used as an adverb. 


2. The Chinese language is rich ia thit class of 
words, and we shall endeavour to enumerate the .prin- 
cipal j&odes of interrogation. 

^T Ho, is an interrogative pronoun of which we 
have already treated. BJ W Yin ho, $ ^ wei ho ? 
^mf ft ho koo. fpj ^ ho wei,^f ^r ho keu,^ l^ho 
yoen,and|^ f^T yuen ho, all stand for why, wherefore, 
on what account, &c. as^il ^ joo ho, how?' "iU ho 
joo, how will this do'? The latter at the end of senten- 
ces; as ^ ^ 1ST 4$ ke k'bo ho tsae, how will this dot 
f*J ^ % ho kan sze,how dare I to die? ^^ -$t 
*f* f? ^ y- tsung chingfooho yew, in administering 
the government what difficulty would there be '? JS ^ 
^[pf joo yu ho, what can he do to me? in 3E A ^ 
joo ching jin ho, how can he rectify others ? 'fcf -g| >fc 
^ ho tih die shwae, what a failing of virtue ! ^ jfep 
fiT -ke. joo cfce fao, how will that do? jSfU "^ ^ ^ 
joo che uae ho, what is to be done ? 

^[ Hoo,^ woo, ^ ho, and ^ woo, all signify hew, 
why 4 ? af|| rlsll ^ ^ woo n^.ng taasr ehe, hew can 
one endu^iiiis^ -g| ^7 ^ ffc hoopwh peon hwa. wbv 
do you not reform? ^ ^ jf" ^=- hots^ih tsae foo 5 why 
accumulate riches ? i>^ ^ jm Jlfc hoo wt^i joo tsze, how 
is it thus? x % J?,^ ^fe woo tsiib taou tsae, how 
it be worth while speaking of ? '* * 

-ft Ho, stands for why not? asm 
%wd foo lae, why not return ? ^ -fr 'f ^ /s? fe 
yen urh chej ^hy does not each of you express 
opiaicaa ? 


4. jl K'he, signifies how ? as 
Vhe yew isse le foo, how e&n such a princ.yie 
JL jk ^ ^ & ? k he a wei ptih jin fooj why 
endure it? H ^ ^ ^ ^" k'he tsae foo to shaou, fcow 
does it consist in the quantity *? ji 3^ k'he tan, how 
dare 1 presume"? (a common expression of .'polite-' 
ness :) J[ J$ JL ^ k'h J8 she foo, how is it thus 9 J|; 
^ ;fti ^- Jfc^ k'be yew kea yu tsse tsae, can any- 
thing be added to this *? (ne plus ultra.) j ji J ^ 
3f '"^1 ^1;^^ ic'heurh tsge che so e niog keih 
rssre, boTT can you swo geatieruen attain to this $ J *>fi 
?$ W 7 i^" ^ k v he puh shin k'ho seih tsae, how is it 
notdeeply to be lamented ? 
^$i He has a similar meamitig: 
^^^ ^ ic yew tih tsae, howh he virtual . ^ 
3f* ta ke he puh yu&, why does he not sp^ok 1 ^ -> 
"^ ^ >> S suy to, yih he e wei, though much, yet 
what is to be done with it "? 

5,^ Yen, pccips at Ae commencement of a sentence* 
ai? 3t ffi ^ y eD ywg'fihi, what will be the lise of "ki!- 
Img him; ^ ^ p. ji ^ yenkjinyu e, ^hy for^ 
sake benevolence and justice ? ^ ^ ^ >^ Jfc jt 
^. ^ she yen tih wei ta chang foo foo,. how can he be- 
come a great hero. 

^ Gan, has also the sense of the interrogative: as 
^ 3L >S? ^ g*^ tih teuh sin foo, how can you be 
content*? |f ^ ^ it gan kan wang tsze, how can I 
dare to hope for this ? ^ ^| J^ ^ gan n5ng to yay. 
how ean we escape *? 

6. J| 3) M6 fei, is not unusual in asking a 
tionras ^ # f& ^ j Ajjj mdfeilsewlie she jin 
mil, iftitnot this man'? ^. 5}t B^ ^t ^ ? mo fe? ts8 
yay tso leaou> was it not done last night? J^ ^ ^ mo 
pub fcbe, is it noUo? | ^ ^ ^ ^ mo fei keea 
leaou dn foo, he has surely seen the bride. 

7> H- Ke, occurs in the sense of how, how many; 
as H J -^ ke'to tseen, how much money? H A ke 
jin, how many meaS^fe ^f J6 kau, signifias the 
same. To show flievsrious modes m which Aow?is ex- 
pressed, we quote the following: as $ tosh^iqa 


cb*ng; or &t beu, how long? A e 

3j> j?n K:e to,- or ^ ||- iH* A yp.w ke ko jin, how many 
omr? ^ S* ^t y^ k kzey# 5f Jfe ife to shaou 
tbse soo, $ || -jf tsgfc ke ho. all signify how many 
times $ a$ |f % J? -j& maetot&aan tseen, ^ jjF || 
^ y io fthaou me fenfe, and fr IS ^ ^T mac kea ke 
ho, for ho^ much wa* It sold, or at what price ^ 

. In esODversaticri the followig m^des of fcterro- 
gsrtriK! are in use. 

\fp NarasfB 1 ^ "t ^ ^t'.na lo hwan king 
to tsxjy, whc will stii! jabber;^ ^ f^ . #f f. -|f 
r>hc na ko t?ih show peih, whose handwriting is this ? 
jf r- fg ^|; -^ A 4, ^ A nayih ko *he hapu 
?:n she gi> jin, which is a good and which is a bad man ? 
1$ ^ ;n ^t? ^ # * na yew puhho puh nmh 
cie k, why fihutud we not live ia harmony ? 
: *P ^ Na Ie 5 bow, whare; as ty jfg. nale k^n, 
whitiber are you going ^^ ^ ^ ^ |g ^ na le 
keang tih hwa lae, how can you speak ,thus ? ^T ^ $$ 
k'ho uh haou na, is not that well ? 

4 shkt s fe JS tsng md, 4f 7f shin mo, 

yangr* all signify in what manner? as ; 
tving teih, "what $ 1C* ^ r ^- *& ts^ng ^o haon'ne, how 
will that be well ? -Sp ^ 5 k'heo tAng leaou, how i* 
that to be done? ^& ^ ^ $f pa ts|ngm6 teih, what 
do you fear? fcjfkdt^ Sfe is&ig ni<S k j haa feili 
di'huh, bow didyoufifctlit out?^ S >^ ^ ^ yew 
shin mo sse keen, what h year business t if ^ ^sj- 
^ jj, shin mo haoue sxe, wh^t gaod ioteDtious? >^ 
^ ^r ^ ^ ts&ng nae woo t&nng ymg ? how is it thai 
there are no traces '? 

Nan toa y jacccw wift ot without ^ jij p^ 
he end: s^ip. ^ ik "f" ^ ^- ^ ^ ?^n 
-Low kaou |u pik ching, have you first ac- 
cused me Ip. M <$ ^ 3* san taou tso wan 
have you finished the work ^ Sometisaes at the 
; puh ching r*orely is used; ^ ^ fc & ? 
pah Ifeib teaou-g^o- ^ub ^Hiug, will he 


9. The particles aflixed to the end of senter 
denoting a question are the following :^ yay^lS 
^ foo, jfeyu, or ratte^ yn, and,oceas 

Yay,is very common: as^ ~$P sbeyay, kit 
^5 y(f fow y ay , is it so or not 4 ? : |t |L ^ k wo keen 
is this truly to be seen ? or ;^ lL jf we keen yay, can it 
not be seen "? ^ J>1 ^ :|t $f |f Bo c ehe ke jen yay, 
how do you know that it is thos? In a few 
^ yay, is used forfl^ yay a 

^ Tsae, is also of frequent oceiirenee: 
tsae, what is that 4 ! ^>ft.^ gai* ttae tsae 9 where 
it"? ^} /v.^ ^ yew JIB foo tsae, does this 
from men ? J ^ JN. 4^> ^ mouanjinyay tsae, what} 

to tyranize over people? 5 -fa -Ju ^- seay sin yay 


yu tsae, does he write a letter? 
e tsae, is ttot this proper f 

^ Foo, is a general sign of the interrogative, at the 
end of sentences: as tfc ^^ ^ i*e che taou foo, do 
you know it*? |L HTsU ^ ^ k he k'ho hwa$ tseeij. 
foo, how can you ,pay.-:the money? ^7 ^ ^ ^- put* 
yih 16 foo, is it not joyful f 

^~ Choo, sometimes occurs: as ^ ^ yew cboo, is il 
ihus*? A ^ ^ ^ jin yew shay choo, should men a^ 
bandon him; ^ ^ jfg ^^f k'he li^ urbsbib cboo, 
could he eat it^ 

Yu, and more seldom^, yu, are met with: ap S- 
yu, is he a sage t ^ ^ Jft, ^ & * 
iew che yu, yih yu cbe yu, did be seek for it, or was 
it given to him *? M Mo, is used in conversation: as J| 
m6 fei ts?e iin mo^ is it not this mau? 
^w keen ra6,nave you seen it ? 
Fow, ifeit v or is it not ^ is a sign of the in* 
as Jl "S she.fow, is it so or not ? ^ ^ 
Jfj- she fow k'ho bing, may it be done or not?^" ^ 
tsftng fow, is it done or not yet *? ^ J| ^ ^ fow yu 
mwan neen, is be of full Age? ^ "1^ jftl ^- /Jk* ^. 
^ 4!> tsijh hea^cbe woo sin yu fow yay> dd yon k?H>w 
my intention ? -fe |4 ^ "^ fow, t$Jb puh tboo, if not, 
sfcaU not kill them; ^g ;fc JL 


fceih, if not he will not deliver; jf- ^1 ^ -fe wei che 
ho fow, we do not know Whether it is suitable or not, 

II. Whence Is expressed by^^My^tsuog ho 
eboo s fj ^t 'DS ^ tsze tvangho choo, whence; ^ 
ho &mng, from whence;^ .5? ^ tsuny; na le, 
from; tl ^ffe ts ze pe, ^ ^ J| tsze kae choo, _ r ^ 
yew pe, all express thence: and- ^jH ho cboo, where;; 
hang ho choo, whither. 

12. This is also a very numerous rJass: the princi- 
ones are^ piih: as^ffifc ^P $ ts?..-- puh Jae. it can- 
not be done ; jp, ||I ^ ^ P^^ 3 te^^b P^b le, neither 
instant nor remote, i, e the middle course; ^ ^ ^ 
^ gno jew puh she, 1 have done something wrong; 
Jf* Jf' Jfi '3k pub tih puh klieii, I cannot avoid going, 
^ ^- pub she, mi o time, sfjon;^ ^ pah ke, not 
long, 'within a short time ; jfi Q pfih ] i'h, not mauy clays., 
shortly;^ ^ jfc ^p jHt puh yung puh joo tsze, i 
cannot be otherwise than thus ^ |^; puh jen, not thue; 
7 ^ pub bhe 9 not right, wrong; gp ^ ^> puh tib 
piih, wnot be avoided, must 4 ^F ^ ^ puh k'ho puh, 
mmi not omit, ought;; ^ >J|t pub w^i not only; (fol* 
lowed ^y^ JL yih tseay, but also;) ^ ^ puh f^ v 
lawless; ^ ^ puh Jeaou, or ^ ^ puh keo, linexpectv 
emy; ^ ^ ^ pub yKh iirh t6ub s wants scarcely 
anything to be complete, ^|| piih yaoii do not; ^ 
^ pfih jo, nothing b^ttej than; jfc fe |g ~fi puh tsae 
"Jbwa hea, need not be recorded; ^ ;l! JJL ^ puh ^ 
tseay shwo, let us not detail this, but say r a phrase 
to denote the transition from one subject to another , 
| pub seaou, B^edlessr^ ^ puh seaou H degetse* 
^ ^P ^ ^ baou puh hwan lo, rejoiced much 
;|fe Woo, have aot 9 is the opposite cf ^ yew, have^ 
^ -$k *f^ ^ V ew wo tefog pe, whether or u<t, there 
be abuses; ^|| ^ PUB woo cbe, originally nothing; 
^ ^R ^ iL ^ woo yew p&h jt>o fc<^ chay, chvii^h 
fr*e4 who is u^e<|uai to yourself, do n*>t hitve 3 


friend unlike yourself; -$& jfp 3lr >tf woo urh wei yew, 
possessing aothi* g and pretending to have all; $& J|!J 

j| jjjj^ woo tsih yen woo, if you have not, say that you 
have not; Jt $) $g ~|T woo yew k'hae yen, no way of 
commencing the con versa tion ; @J ^ pf $ ^. : 
kwu puh k'hoyihjih woo keun, an empire cannot be 
one clay without a prince; .J&. -jfH woo joo, nothing like> 
much better; ^ jj% ^ ^- wo so P^ n teae,- no place 
where he is not, omnipresent; J$^ J9f ^ -{J woo so puh 
ehfc, nothing that he does not know, omniscient; %7 ^J 
5 J&- ffii Jp 3r Ji- ch'hoo ch'huh yu woo, urh kwei 
yu woo, it came forth out of nothing and reverts to no- 
thing; ^ & J ^. )fr shih eh'huh yu woo sin, really 
unintentional; $ jj? ). Jt ^ $$* tsun nan chih oyu 
keae woo, 1 have neither son nor daughter; J^ Jt $L 
T ^ ^ t'heen shaug te hea keae woo, neither ia 
heaven above, nor on earth beneath ; $* ^ woo chang s 
death ; ^ ^ 4fe ^VP e P^i woo yib* not one of them, 
13. i}p Fei, and Sfeie occur: as ^ ^" A, >f% ^* 
fei been jin puh fe^ho f r ay, none but a worthy man 
^p; ^ J$L F j^ fei we ; s yih 5 not only, but; ^ ^" 
fei fuache szej contrary to one's duty; ^ fc 
fei pe tern chang, extraordinary ; the same a& 3fe 
fei chang, uncommon ; ^ ^ she fei, right & wrong ; 

$t ^L ^ ^T fei t'ha pGh k'ho, we cannot do without 
faim;^. vfc ^ 1^ feif^motso, do, not do unlawful 
things i$\ ^%>7w 3jiz^L fei ke kwei urh tee^ to sacri- 
fice to the spirit of a man With whom we have had fie 
connection ; If ^ 5fc 3t >^ kung fceu fei ke jin, to 
recommend ao improper person ; ^ ^ fei wei, bad ac- 
tions. 01 Fei, is sometimes used m the sense of wof, 
which case it has always a bad meaning; as ffi 
^ fei tih tuy iun s without virtue or with foad 
to -sink into perdition, 

^ Fuh,, is commons as w ^31 ^ fdh joo vay, ua 
equal; ^ "^ fuh kMng, UB willing yjL ^7 '^g Jt ^ 
^ ^ e fuh mwan ke chih she yew, he wfts afflicted 
on account of not having fulfilled the duties of his 

,14 Jl M^ is a negative of p?oktbi%a; as 


mo seaoti, doft't laugh i "SS? J?" SBO yaou yitt 

tso )e$ou, do not make a mistake; J| fpj ^ mo tun^ 
show, do not proceed to violence: ||' ^ $16 shwo, don't 
say. is often followed by "#$ tsew: as || 1^t~5fe ^ ^ 
^ life ^ ^ ^ ^ nio shwo gno yew yin tseen, tsew 
she fibih muli yew, not to say that I have money, I am 
even destitute of food. Combined with adjectives of 
^ shin, it conveys the idea of the superlative degree, 
as has been already remarked: as 
shin yusze, nothing could exceed this; 
teyut'heen, nothing greater than heaven; 
mo tachekung,insurpassable merits; 
kwo yu sze > nothing can exceed this ; (ne plus ultra ; ) 
Jfc m6 pe, incomparable,-^ ^. ^ ^ mo wang mo 
lae, neitiier go nor come; J|3a m ^> J> $*& best, nothing 

Muh, occurs iu conversation; as ^5t 'i ^r ^ 
ko ke hwuy, no opportunity; $& jh $T n>uh nae 
bo 1 ao resource, ^ ^ ^ ^" miih ko tTiow seu, no 
clue; ^L ^" ^ HB m ^ 1 yibjih heen. ; not for one day at 
leisure, % Jt y]L ^ Jp shin shang muh tih chuen t 
nothing to wear on his body; ^t 4E >fe ^^b P a pi^g? 
no handle to lay hold of ; ^fSI ^ ^ ^* yih ko yay 
muh yew, I have not one of them; -^- g^ jfa |@ 
tsuen muh yew yih ko, none at all. 

15. ^ We, occurs in combination, as ^ ^ wets^ng t 
and ^- ^f" wechang, in the sense of not now, not yet; 
thus ^ ^^ keih fen mo, have you eateii rice'? ^ we, 
or ^ ^ we tsng, not yet; ^ ^ ^ ^ we lae che 
sze, things not yet co&e to pass, future events , ^ ^r 
we she, not hitherto; ^ ^ ^ ^ we yew che yay, or 

^ 5^ ^ ^ we che yew yay, this has never been the 
case; jj^ jjJ we peih, not certainly, or not necessarily; 

^ ^ ^ i& Jfc wei yew pub joo tsze, it never has 
beeo otherwise; ^ ^ ^ yoo we tsuh, still discon- 
tented;^ ^ we tiag, unsettled ;^^T we k'ho, can- 
cot, or may not;^ ^ tsung we, never. 

16. Of -5F woo, and ^ wuh, we have already spo- 
ken, but add here a .few remarks :-$- Ir ^ ^ woo 

kwd che, no need of m$kmg eo? ado ^bout it 

CttA*. *1 eAT*. 

* J Ji $ woo lieu too jib, do not icHy spend 
day: -S- 1^ |J f& wo Uf k Uf k sin* ^ aot divide your 
beart; ^ ,^ * wuh wei nan, do not fear difficulties; 
^ Ifr ^Pt jf hing wuh fuhyen, do not if you please,' 
apeak of it again; xft JJj ty ^ fc kwo tsih wuh tan 
kae, when you have transgressed do not feai? to repent 

17* J| Ivlei, audU* meg, are occasionally used as 
negatives: as^ ^ fc me chang, unusual; J^ ^ me kae, 
without end; Jit ^ ^ ^ mei yew k'he^ wei^ there 
was Rot one left; ^ ^ mee yew, have not 

18. P5 Waiig,'^ woo,^ we, H p'ho, and some- 
times "t wang, are used in ancient books as negatives: 
thus (9 ^ wangkeih, unbounded; S| ^ Jit ^ wang 
yew tsze sze $ there is no such thing; Jf ^ HJ ^] che 
36 wang wan, do just as if you did not hear, jit Woo, 
appears to be an abbreviation of |& woo: as |fe ^g ^ 
woo fuh fun, no share of happiness ;^ ^ we tsi5, no* 
to do:^ ^| ;ii v ^ we yew sin far^notthe least cnu- 
rage- g, ^J p'hc tsih, uniathoinabie ; ^ 
yih woo fang; the advantages are unbounded. 

19 . 1 hese negatives cannot be used at random, but 
the foregoing examples will serve in some measure ta 
direct the- reader how to employ them. 

To render the meaning of the negative still stronger 
the following words are prefixed:^ twan f< ^J tse&, ^ 
keg, ^ tseug, ^ tsun^^|. chung, || wan, ^ tseuen, 
j^v ta^ haoUs^ seaou*j|l leo.and J| pitigr as f|f ^* 
^|> ^T twan foe puh k'ho, this cannot on any account 
be done; H ^ ^ ^ H wan wan puh shay tsuy, oa 
no account remit sins;^ ^ ^. ^. tseeu haou woo e t 
not the slightest difference- ^ _$| fj= haou woo tsuy^ 
entirely iiocent; |^ ^ ft ^ *seu6 piih k'hwau tae f 
not the slightest induigenoe ; j^ ^. ^ ;$| ^. ping 
woo yih kan sang ke, there was not one single standard. 

20. A great many words are formed by these nega- 
tives just in thr s^me maoner as with our in% uii-, l 
and dis-; a$ ^ ^ M. yew tsing le, reasonable; |R- 
IE woo tsing le, vuireasonable, ^ f^ yew le, 
^ wix? ie, unpolite:^ ^ woo^ang, 
woo keusg* eudlesfc fa woo 


f* ^fl) shin she puh le ? very disadvantageous;^ ^ 
Woo tfcth< peerless; ^ ^ puh jin, not only means des 
fitute of benevolence, but cruel, tyrannical; ^ g. puh 
bin, unministeriike, rebellions; ^ ^ puh jin, eornpas' 
skmate ; ^ J^ woo too, inordinate, lieentiouSo Besides 
these, there are a great iaanv similar words, which, by 
prefixing a negative obtain an opposite meaning. The 
Chinese are also very fond of repeating the same idea 
with the negative: as ^ W Jfc Sfe *ei urh puh chow, 
beautiful and not ugly, i e. very beautiful; ^g j j?g 
3fe 3E ^ twan thing urh fei wae seay, correct in con- 
duct and not depraved;^ ^ Hfc ^ $% ^ k'hin laoit 
ping puh Ian to, to work industiiaariy and not tf show 
remissuess.^ ^ M ^ ^ jfi> show k : hoo ping woo 
gan fuh, to suffer misery without the enjoy meat of any 

2 1 T \ < "i only aflirm , but render the 

oiv^er; a* j ^" ^ ^J ]Jfc we yew 
puU joo.tsifce, it oil ^wiseijfjf 

]J ^ }g- mejihpuh day without ttrinkiog of 

yoij> *. c. to think ever\ ? ' day, ^ $k llji Jj l^ wootsia 
ieih, me*-setf to the utmost; |g_ j^ ^r woo puh kwow every tiling ; JR. '^ f| woo pah 

22. >^- Bhe yew. and h*.-. stand few our 
sbJh , tsae, means really; 1 ^, f$C kwo jen s in 
tw*fi je., det:idediy; - ^. yilt fciag, certainly; 
verily * <fr j| iangchin f i*iily^. ^ gaa ta% 
assuredly ; ^. chin fchifa, iruiy auci tft ^f ching 


23, We shall enumerate the principal ones of this 


She, means tim^ or when as Brf $| ^ she 
fisoseay tb^ when he sat ;dowu to^nte, & H It, 
^Hf ch huh muj) the she, when he went out of the fifate; 
$t A > ^ 1l chiBg jin c he she how, whan he had 
become a nsaji 3 or was of age;. 0?f % she she, always 
constantly;-^ jj?f me* she,veveiry tvme;-Sf ^f ping hhe, ; 
ordinarily.;^ ]^r ^aou she, a little . ^hile;^" j^p- kew 
she.^b W seen she,^ J}^ seih she, r;/xiHJp l|^ chow 
sh* al) mean formerly; Jt ^ tsze she 9 at, this titsjei 
" 8^ *aug he^ ^ she she,^ jj^ wei she, and 
& ^ 1^ * an g s '^ e f * 6 ^ e i a ^ signify, at that to . 

f'ha lie, at another time; ^ how 

in future, afterwards 3 j ^ ^- BUY she, imniediately, from 
time to time ; ^ ^ v^w sh6, soijfi^timies;^ g^ ho she, 
^Jj^ kes^and in convefsatiop ^ ^ j}| j^vhin 
mo she 110 w, nil mean -when 1 ? fp ^ tseih she, i 
atdy;||f^ is'he tr&nh, every moineDf>^ tBo 
^ ^jfi ^h- ctie, |u^t^l thai time; 1$ $? hwo ^^, i a 
sertaiB iime;% tf^ rha *N,|| ^ ^ ^h^^ ^F 
peen she, and --^f 1^ I i a short, time, ira* 

mediately; ^ 8^ jffl t&ng she Heii, within a rKoment; 
^ ^T ban she^eklom.;^ J^ h<? she, alwavs. 

24o ^f Tseih., fvhh it& eombiuations, niet?i<s MI : ,-' / -^ 
ly . : as |p -fg. t^esh. peen,^ |j} l^og tsb, Jj? J^F] i 
Vhik^ |p Buy tseih, .^ fp eho tsefe,-f^ |jj 
lseih r all signify taimediateiv, l.he san-- 

%^ It sea y a ^^^ -^^^ ^g v ^ Hit kv-ig fe 

;); ^ bhaou k Bg,t^^| ^ king klii'h keen,^ $fo 
go jen, ^ % IS go king,^ gp chS t^eih.^L $ chajen, 
^ -^ shun keeu,)^ f , ^ ffl shun hih che keen, 
4J3| ^ fan. jen, ^ g^ p*aB heaag, and Jff Ji feew 

25= 2 I 'Kfl bv-T - X -T" 

feeih taoy s ^ tf- ? fg- ^ tsir* ip 

H?'^--"? kedyili .iirfo, V'- ;, j^ Jf 

tsafD, s :> expressed by i^, kin, j 

kin j?h,^ siu, ^ ^ ^ 3/L we yew to fep 
foo king: formerly, reads thus: L 



jg| tseen t'how,^ ^ tseen hang, ^ ^jt tang seta, 
^g- yih ceih,J| -f^ nang* seih, andHlf -far ehow seih, 
^ } Seihiih, on a former day, ^ ^ koo she, ID for* 
mer times; J-, ^ shang kop, in high antiquity; A- i 
f haekoo, in wry high antiquity. Afterwards, is ex- 
pressed by jj$ ^ sze how, ^ \J| how peen, and ^ Jig 
how f how, 8 p Tso |ifir means yesterday; ^ 
tin jih, to day; ^] B tseen jih, the day before jester- 
day; B^ ming jih, to-morrow;^ fl bow jih, the 
day after to-morrow;^ ^ tseen neen, the year before 
Iast 5 ^|| ^ kew neen, last year;^^ kin ueen, the 
present year; B8 ^ wing neen, next year;S- ^ mei 
neen, or ^ ^F Been neen, yearly. 

26. Whilst, and during, are expressed by B keen, 
l^"tse,^!J kang,and jEching: as Jt ^ lUf }SJ chinge 
lun keer^ whikt they were debating; ^ jfc ^ ]^ 

szechetse v between life and death; ^ ^.^ H?J 
che kang, whilst coming to the engagement: 
^ shing yaou kliae yen, whilst wishing to 
speak; jJfc 1?| |S5 tszeshe keen, during ;\it ^ leenyay ? 
during the night; H y% ^ BU ching choo rfaow jkeen, 
wMsi in a state of indecision, Hitherto 5 is expressed 
by 1% ^ heang lae,^ $. tsung lae. $} jJfc taou ts^e, 
$^ ^3 ft* taou joo tsse, and $>J ^t ^ iaou joo kin. 
Henceforth, by ^ i ^ kin e lae, ^ ^ K/. ^ tsze 
Mn e bow. Till and until, by^j^t^ yu, \^ j&- 
yih yu,^ feeih, ^fi & chih che,l|, ^- tae kin, ^ ^ 
keih che, and ^!i i-aou. 

^ Chang, ^ ^ chang she, >lE ^ hang chang, }s. 
^ ha jig: she, '^ ^ cbang yue 5 ^ ^ puh twan ^ 
|^ ptsh tseue. ^ ^ tse^ leen, ^ ^ and k'hih k'hih, 
ineati constantly, always. 

27, "J Leaou as we have already remarked, seems 
|o indkate the past: as -f ^ ^, 5 tso kwo leaou, having 
<km&ii;~|& ^ ^ ? yu we leaou, not yet finished speak* 
^K^ ^ ^ ^" ^ tow king too k'heu leaou, went 
fa the capital ;' ^ "J ]IL ^ ^ ^ how leaou te 
iSagiiag juh, having receiverj this insult; ^ ^ 2^ 5 
is pas eleaon, hejog %esBec!, $C ^ ^ 3 how shifae 

having collected tb^wiiolo- li is ^bo repeated 


several times: as % ^ ^ 3 & 3 ^ 3 Jaou yay 
na leaou> ta teaou* kin leaau, the Mandarin has seised, 
beaten* and confined him inprbtm; ^? J $L ^fc~ leaou 
leaou yay we, is it done, or not yet done. Often it is 
put at the end of sentences merely for the anke of eu 
phony: as }1L^ ^L^fe J*H @ jT chay yew she naa 
te muh leaou, this is a difficult theme, it is not mifre- 
quently preceded by ^ yay: a& J^, ^ ^ 3fe S yay 
tftj shin shi^uy ieaou, his virtue is very mucfi degeue* 
rated; ^ ^ ^ ^jC |^ ^ yay puh kwan ne^ze leaou, 
k d^es not concern your affairs; ^ ^ ieaou sse v 6r 
^ y^l Ieaou -keuh, theaftair is done; $ JtL ieaou keep, 
to see thoroughly; ^ ^ ^ )ffi ^ leaou leaou jen 
ming pin, very plainly; ^J ^ ^ leaou puh tih, exceed- 
ingly unbearable; ^ ^ ^ JS^T -f^ shih' foa ying 
heung leaou tih, the bravest of the brave ; ^ ^ $ ^ 
5 3 ^ c ^ay t^ng ieih ieang joo ho fcaini tih, 
a degree of strength how can one withstand; *$ 
1,^S ^ l^a^ p&h tib ctay mo haou, ex- 
eeedingly excettent: ^ J?> ^ ^ .>Sj l^j^ kaouipuh 
eih kea heuog kiB laou, the diligence of ^iny elder bro* 
flier is excessive. 

2* EV &s ^^ have already remarked likewise indi* 
catea the past: m , ^ e seay, I have written; 2* Ug o 
urh, past the proper time: Jfjj L urii e, tht? whole w 
done, nothing more; ^ gfg ^ ijg ^ yew Ieang yift 
urhe, I hav* only two taels 1 ana c more* Jfc 
piti iih c, no resource; g, ^ c rfiio, too mncfe 
^ J| bae tsie e , here tf^ com to an eud. 


28. Tfee fallowing are the mo^t frequent; 

chay lev 
teac ^ cho^fc L ^e so te<*, all 

"p, Jfc 

feng 3 jBp $ fc n& iu Use, 
? sta^d aevenliy for 
dioo; i 


i ev pressed by $} y& yaw tsze,;^ $fa fcsimg 
'^ by^ D& j|t &^ r 'g n& ho 7 ;$^;$t tsvsti 
Our word towarSs, S expressed by jfg heaag, a( 
'wang; asJnJ Jt heang jiuaig, upwards;]^ "p heang 

downwards;^ g wang se 5 west-ward;^ 1 -""* 
pei how 9 bark ward ; $g ^| l^ang teeen, or"|| tse 
lbrwrd;5^ S wae mee0j outward; ^. ^ k ween, 
^ j^; choo choo, and J^j ^ taou choo, 

r y ^ M jl^ P^ ' im ^ c ^? *^ ^ 

keu' ho choo a whersspsves; ^ :| x 
taou che ehoo a and Hi) ^S ^ ^ h^^ng shin te 
wfaithersoever; rf* chung, xj^ @ chuag feeefij aod, 
^: dkung yang, all signify middle, 


29. M Pih pwaB,^ It eboo pwai^ all 
various; it ^ehay pwan, this sort such;2fj 
pwam, that s<avt; Jg^ yih pwan. jgi yfh yaag s 
same; || ^le yau& oificreDt; ^| ^ chay pwaa ? ct 
^t ^ . jt pwan, such. So aiso^f ^ ch^y t&ng, ^}i 
JJ^ }oo tse,^j[ jj^ sse tsae^ such Ska 

^). WbeB treating of the ruunmU we adduced & 
number oC this dass^ we sfcafl here tneeitioa Ch^ re- 

J^ T%a a greatly, very; i,^- fhseto,, ^srery much, 
excessive; J^ ^ ^ $ ^^ ^ n g ^fng seay, rath? 
toa indifferent; JL ff % t'bae sbw<S hwa,too big tali; 
Jt S ^ % **hae chliiilb yuag e, too easy. It is trf- 
ten combined with ?J| -|wb.; ^ & ft& & 0s ffK 
t%a^ kwo, he loved me tco nmch; ^ Ki? ^ i m 
fei 8in leih t'hat kwa f he bestowed too much ca*e upon it 
Yfc, abo a^curg ia this sense: as j^C ^| f^ yifc 
po, too indifier^nt; ^ j^ 7^ ^ yih she p&h 
very wrong; 1 ^J ^ k "hS3 yih tsaou seay, 


? too early; ^J. :& .-fl 3&$B 3 
very t&d physiognomy. 
H&ou, or ^ & feaou pub, signify ?"y : aa 
baou hoc djwttt very foolish talk <r&f ^ , 
a pub naou j*, an exceeding great bustle;^ 
X jC fcstfu ke&Jiit ieaon, veiy much toughed ~fti 

the ffrcainder we lefcar the Teader ta the 
cles, ihat fossa the superlative degree: as for iBstaoce 
leih, extremely; ? . ^ f ^ ^fc^ ehay yy 
ses0o keih leuoft, thi^ is very ndieulcHis; f^ -ilp 
shwo tiB ketb she, that is very Irnc; 3tc In 
sueh atid similar cases these words are used b the same 
manner, as if they sto^d Befwrc a djec:tive; ^ sM,, 
and $t sli^i, two ve?bs f ^t me^n to kill, are also used 

f -^* r ^^^_ -^ "-fcfr" "^1^ 1^0^^ \^-iJCT 

to denote aoy ming excessive: as m w Jv -j$t ^w ^ 
kae shaa cbta gh& tib kaou, that hill te immensely high; 
^ i^C |^ ^ 9? aeyih shl. laau taou, you are too 
troubles?^* S. ^t v^ ^ ehm kwae hw6- shS, I 
bruly overjt^ed, or ready to die for joy, 

Seay, a little; ^ ^ seu seay, 
geay we, trifling, small. ^ Cfaay* 
are afte& prefixed wifliout materiaBy changing 
ihe seie; ^ ^ ^Jj hia seay haou, to day a little 
better; |f || ^ Jlf lung seay show keo, shew off 
somewhat Mime's skill. Affixed to adjectives it qua- 
lifies their meaning: as ^f ^ haon seay, rather good; 
t^ p5 aoay, miber cruel: preceeded by ^. muh, er 
iilb yih> it rna^y be translated net the least: ^~~ 
-tt* ^ ^ yih seay gan y^y raiah yew t he bad 
e least rest; ^ -^ ^ Sf mGh seay t'hc meen, 
the la^ respectability, Tt is also followed by 
shin mo, in ih 4me aense: as 
shiu mo, talk a linle; ^f M 
seay shin mo, to introduce >omethii 
Jf F*ho, loused in tbe aen^e of rather: as 
plbo t4>,rathel mucb;J^ ^[ plioyew, rather much; 
$$ ^i ^ P* tl0 p*ho % heal tih, to understand somewhat 
0f anything; ^[ ^ ^ jg, p'bo se e hwA, raf her doubU 
ia; fe| H p^So E*ng t rafter capably 

116 rMPOOTlONft, CHA*>, 

82, ^ To f miK?b;^^ kwo to, "too sonsy ; 
to cbting, header, too beavvt^ ^ tarfuMnMA 
tokwa, bow iBauyl how much ?Jk 
tbung u^gr^atTnuIiitiidtBs, ^j Sfei, sad pf ma the 
more, and ^ hwa&g, how &m?h the taoire, ire used IB 
ways: a? >& A bwsng tseay, stiil tDre, fuithei^ 
^bo hwang, how much lime iore;>^ ^ 
' ^ %- fl5 ^ hwang yay wei yew yiwig tlum 
urh ^ now imii*th the more so, as he only uttas c^istaa! 
sighs and nothing else; J^ fe^ng, more; |^ ^U A 
seu yih "jin, we muststUi nave one man; ^ ^ 
k^ng shin king Yneaou, the more the better; jg^ 
k^og pdh to dhiih, give BO more orders; ^ 
Vhae boshe s still wait how long; IB 
, and It 4 



I. WH-EK treatmg of the easas of substantives we 
lready adverted to this class of words, We shall 
give aticcinet ^ew oittiebr various us^s s 
Yu, /*, ^ is used m very different waysr as 

- leapw le 

towrii him ifae proper ceremoBieg; f| ^ 
y%iehysn, talkcRUtiotisly withhiraj ^ ^SL 
ifc t*uh yu yet?,, not profthy to bt 'iqpraaa to^ 
1ft ^fe y u sa ebtMii* b* swore ihat he would 
bin iint^i^ **&;& A J *t ^ ^ *to 
Ji iTbnig V* 1 ]*% fe ^* B l^* 11 vith tt dub or wiib & 
w2n*i ^ f|t )| jfc yujp* -^^ e'diftB* to bring mat* 
tec* afc^ fey y^u^viB Jfc 3? & T> W ^ 
nit pdh hiog-ytt pu w5a ttiug, 4b fe^M aad atjt to 
Is Uae^me ^ot to lm-t sfft A HI & i 


sbwuy yu ^ang teih, who will opp^e You? Majesty "? 
Jf- ^36 ^ y u J 8 ^ n syo* conclude a contract with 
you; ^ ^ 1^ HI y 1 * ttirn taag 15, to rejoice vith 

inspire the hearts of the people with dtaBenee; ^ J^. 

t^ p&h yu teuo yew, not comprised in it; %iHi $ 
y 3f- &Mih n&ng yw yu s%e foo who i^ sufficient 
for thisf ^ ^ A jgM^^u ta !e, atiifice with 
great ceremony j ^; ^, KS p^h y u wUn, be did not ask 
it of him ^ ijf. jfc ^ k an .V 11 c fa m | ^^^ &fe eoncems 
poliiies; ^j: J^- T&. ^} J& yi k^ih p^, aad parted with 
tears 5 |k ^ ju 1m, to fee preseitt at the sacrifice; ^ 
^ ^L'^ pub lib y ^h^* cuid not be present at tihe 
examinations; y $$. ffl Jfa ^ jfe kew ebe yu, 
yih yu ebe yu, did "he seek for it, or was it given to him f 
jft- ]it 3$. it yu ^ a 8 ** 00 ^5 different from this. It 
is also used m comparison; a^^. ^- ^ $1 5|t ^ tih 
yii ks kea po, m Ytrtue sincerity m better 


j8l J?^ y fc^ tSng^ yfth knng wh s^e t J faaQ, Shag fceu 
raaou uli uA che tsuh, it is better to dwell lyi^tmw ho- 
vel and be r ontent, than to ascend a splendid 

uyw yu pe is 
your niece or my wife f 
2. -$b Yu.and J yu, -^%aify on, i, a/; 
u cbeshei, terev^utfltetupreme 

ya t Men woo yew, in heaves there are H?J 
rows; ^ ^ 5 1 jl- ^ yu kea yu I wo wco OWB fHw>?Sj iw of my csuBtiy-is there 
hope; ^fc -}- ^ %- yu shUr f5h neew^ ID the 16th ^ear| 
^ ^ ^ v gao joe foo ywn, b to jw*? like s 
l>uck; ^- "^^ ^ ^ (i y u ke t^ag, each 
g'to bk clan; - bew keif u 

sought help /rom 

ki exbertatkm; ^ ^ ^f yu-' fe- pub 
? in" strict jopiieC i* otntial be done. ^ ^ 46 
gpo/fartbfe. faith to me; ^ $ che yu-cfaing 



jiii, Dtttil he was full-grown; JLl ^* paca 
g&n yw wao yih, to repay the leu tbousa&dth part of hi& 
kindness; ^f IF 1 ^ yu pifa ie die wae, mot 
than ooe> hundred miles. 

We have already lafriarked that^ yu serves to <2e- 
sciibe the pmsuite: as ^ ^ ^ ^ jjfc- 'A laou leih 
*?hay che yu juvtiiuse WBC perform manual labour are 
ruled by mea; j| |- .% * * % [J& & &eui* teze 
yew wfih^ lei yew yu wtth, the superior man possesses 
tilings but k &ot jpot*et*^d try ibeirj, i. e. not enthrelled 
by his riches; Jfc jj^ 5^ ^ & ? sze yu foo jin che 
shew, died by tbe hand of a woman ; ^ ^ ^ ssh^ yu 
tsou, killed ty the sword. It is used also in compa- 
risons: as 5 -jfe $fc -ffc yih neen ebang yu t'ha, one 
year older than he; JJJL ^ ^- ^ ^ m6 kooju tsze 
uhe, there are acue more helpless than those who place 
loo much confidence in themselves* 

^ Foo, af, *X and on, is used nearly a the above: 
thus H$ -? -t R ch'hfih foo ke keen, to go out from 
them ; JpL ^ 3lh e foo tsze, different from this; 
-J- JL &?e chliuh feo shang, thoughts come frcua 
^ |^ ^ ^ g&o cte&og foo shin, hide it about 
per&aii;:Sf ^jziSL^ ^ haouheo kin foo che, 
la tore learning is a near approach to knowledge* 

tli H fcing.fob foo kwei, to w&m a rich man; 
^- jfu she foo, fmn Let?^; ^ ^ 
wan, different ifrom what he heard ;^ lit 
woo woo yb foo urh, i will not hide it from you ; 
^ ^ puh aa, it doe not consist m that 
h :eed also s eompaTisoas: a^ ^ A^ ^ ^ ^ m6 ta 
.yaou tsliu-a, aeae greater ifests Vacu. sad Shun ; ^{ 
% B Ik ^f "S gnjihjih diafeg ft : . 1 am 
djjjr 'ei&T *h& you, 

3. jjil 1^ jsignilies by, ihr&Mih* with ; as "3gL 
lu le c yu h^4s, reason te eonfaundM fey 
'^Sf H; e dbhwa, to draw mth the fim^f ; )>l 3R 
^ e le dhuy. i, t6 ded^ci fey reasoning; ^ 
yew f fco. fe it dififercntl ^l ^ ft: i? c 


, in flie tenth month of the year* $1 - &, from 
Che past to fijture ages; ij >- "W 4l ***** WIT e how, 
from flow and henceforth; $ 3% e w*i, to eon side r, to 
loolk upon; $ $; ^| J^ e wei sbtitg jin, considered 
kim&& a sng%\! 7; $L ^ -|| p&h e -wei'e^ ootto^arefor 
&'* n S. $j w e ebih^wei kiuh,ia uke the straight 
for the croauedj jit 

grasp be cppTesscd th*peon|e; J^ B e '! ^^ 

-1> ^ ^ e 

, acoofding to my fefilish pten;$ ffc- 
tsltm njftnf hue ch% h ire&tau ber as hts own 

**T5 El ^ ^ ^ Q 8 110 kwfln b% aeej?dmg to my 
view of tfat matter. 

gi E, r sometimes used for JU yung:- M. -i^- 
^ )Jl ^ woo wv> e yay, do n<^ iie we; ^ ^ 
^ Bl JW&& && ptlh e 4 hs was indignaift at his not be- 
ing employed, 

W Kl So e ? ^. j^l feoo , and ^ }>t she 3 all sigisi* 
(y 1]ift evftfej rea80a > motive, therefore? as ^ ^, S^ Vi 
nhekeso e, consider bis motives;...^ ^ ^l -fc peife 
yew e yay , there must be & cause; $ fe e teo 2 -this my 
w;^^ thoejitmay pass;^ $, feo e 3 whereby: 
^ $> woo e ? is sometimes pufc for ^ S w0 e 9 i 
Will m0i desist;^ J# |!J 3E ^ wo^e tefb wang 
if yaa will not deskt^ Aea let u$ ^peak fif the royal 
tern of govenxmedi 

4, ^| Ch^ Is -nearly synonymmis with 
though it w aat so frequently used: $& |^ /$ dioo sin, 
tt hmrt; ^ ^ 2* he dioo ke, to db tom-iaib one**- 
ctf| $ ^ 2^ w cfeoo fee, to *ek awythipig iVorn ^t>e'&. 
fi^lf;^ M ^ ^^ ^ ,Rj pmchoo b'biii, chin chop 
shoo ashi^lS origin of 5t Ur m Gce^tHietC, and th e? i* 
deuce -of it io fc&^ people; ^ ^ ^ sbe cfeoo dfca?3g he 
potnfod to Ihe pdni of bis hBi^d; % ^ tjt l%oo> : ctvw^ 
tee wt^fo^ itao biai-gtidie;^ J^ ^ fea dhooAin, (e tt^ 
fleet m 9UBfc4feif. 

5. ^ Te, principally used k eommsaftkiit and re^ 
gambling hi many r^peclj* &. m h ged to describe 
the dative case? 20 ^ ^ fe ^ ^|*te jootseui6 hwau 
khv to da 9^w ia yow behalf with KM eauee of cala- 
mity; 3^ ^ TJ M^be jt^i thscMag, 1 will for 

PRfifrOftrftOIHi. CfAP. Til. 

set out cm this joXimey; ^ A $ fbe jh? 
Ieih % to exert one's-self for people, 

We* t is used In the sense of for, in behalf of: a$ 
heftwsi ke, to study lor one's own benefit; 


. . . 

wei sbwuy, if ! am act grieved CD feis account, on whose 
account should I be grieved ?-% @ jS^ wei kwo 
cht>o faae, cm bdbdtf f one's oouuiry to remove c&l&iui* 
ty; ^ 5^ ^ weJ the be, to be glad on that account^ f^C 
v H? ^- ^ve wei pin ts'hin^ to jpetition a one's be 
ball ;' ^ "X. *p |C wei i'hen nea se^au, U be A Uugh- 
etock to the empire; ^ v ^ ^ ^^ giio we* ts^eyen 
che.,- 1 will speak for you, Sit! ^ X J& jft wei jia 
cbe ping, h<ea!et! ih^ diseases of the people ; ^ ^ ^~ 
^ weigno ts'hing iae, call him here to me; ^ ^ 
^ ^ wet tsze hwuy szc, in order to communicate: this 
is alw&ys M$ed at the commencement of edicts, when the 
CQitie&t& art given: a ^ tl{ 5^ ^ ]fjj5[ wei cb'huh she 
^dsr to issu a distinct proclamation, Of 
4 yii w^ ^ wei teo^ ^ bj wei, ^ 
fe y b wei tsie kou v &e we Uava already spokee, 
6, j(L Tm^ m, at, ar irt>, is owe of the most frequent 
; as Jt j^o t&ae ching, in th city;^ ^ 
home; ^ tl| tsae sass, on the hills; |j ^ 

becomfiapteblv; jb ^ -t toe gno 

, it devolve* apa> aie f it rents .with me?; 
keen isae ^ho% wilfa a drawn sword i hid h&id; 
; now; ^ ^ >? teem tsxe e ? the' way 

It is afta combtiitd with m ^itmbw af ether 

It ^ a^ ^ ^ tsae 

>r^ tss&tih w&e, i^ul^ide the b^use; 
g, above ;>$. A i tgae $n shasig, on 

^j -ub 

t&c It, fo the. : ' 


, kwftching tsae foo yang rain f good government 
consists in providing for the nation. 

7. f| Tsze, fi yew; $t tsung, all meau/r0*, oto?, 
fy, through; as g ^fc ^ ^ft ) ^ tsze t'ha t&aoi? 
neih e me, from the time that he rebelled and thence- 
forward; ll ^ 5 4" tsze koo che kin, from ancient 
times until now; fa $t fc tsze tstmg tsae, from the- 
time of being at; fl $. Jd tsze lae woo, never; ^ ^ 
lae tsze. origin. 

)fe Yew, is employed nearly in the same sense i at 
itl ^ tL ^V y ew ^ ae e few, it is long since; || ^J 

^ woo yew tih, no way of getting it ;-3|L-& kin yew ? 
the origin, or causa of anything;^ ^ $1 k'he tsing 
yew, or y ^1 sze yew, causes; ip Sj t) Si ne yew 
teze,tseu, misfortune brought upon one's-seif; A St 
iS ^ yew tsze larhlae, from henceforth;^ \jj tsung 
yew, or ^ ^J tsze ye w, signify from:}) ^ yew she, 
from hence ;^| ^ chow .yew, tfee mesas thvough wjieh 
anything is brought about; j*- Jfc j^L 3t ^ yew kiij 
e keib yuen, from the neat to the more distant; rfj jib 
H ^. y ew ^emirn- tin^ enter 'by this door;$} ^ 
^V jst yew yuen jfifa iih, to enter through the ganlem 
in to the house; ^r ^ |^ ^^vew yang s&ang piu 
ts'hing, to petition through the Jiong merchants; $] 
^ *g" -|< ^ yew woo kwafc chingpan, to be transact 
eti by the military Mandarins; 4 * '3)t ^ Jfe; j| 
yew she keun she ta shing, from this time the power of 
the military greatly increased. 

^ Tsung, means also from: a$ ^ ffi ^ tsung 
yuen ivrh 5ae t came from a distance; |fc-^ -^ ^) woo 
tsung eha seun, no means of investigating; ^ ^ >v 

^ woo tsurjg juh show, no means to get into one*$ 
hands; $, ^ ^ tsung fang chliuh, went out of the 
room. ^ 

8. ft: Hc^ug, "^ wang, and ^J neang, 11 meat* 
&>K.T*:t$.- ^ ,^ g) heangnao, southwards; % -f@ 

gg fcttg ky httan^ t f how v to have some fixed object; 
|& heang tseeo. foi^ards; /^ ^ Jt si heang 
the heart directed upwards; t&| 

CHAP. rti 

to dfcmand from him; f| J|] j^ ^ heaug p3ng 
wo, ; tb speak to a friend. * 

So alsb ^ tvang: as 113 J| H: JR T ^ h\vuy 

hiivg chung tsow. Be turned his horse, and iraa 
rds the city; - 1| B 4r 2^ pt ^ *P *ng 
:'hing 9 &an kweikew k'how, he made three 
g-euuflexioxis and inne prostrations a he went towards 
th:.' galact;. IB like B)am>ejr^T yi^g: as ^ ^L ^ ^ 
^* 1^ ||[ J^ wei tsze she yi?'g ko two chuen thih t 
and hereby we addre&s onrs*f!vs to the vessels of evei-y 
oation; ^ j$ p ^ ft joo ying ko tea, we enjoin upon 
every family. 

9. Jl bhang, afc^^, T> hea, feeW, J^te, bentatk, 
nil used as prepo&jtions: thus ^ j^, > jfe. shaug 

h^a te, up to heaven, and down to earth; ^ 
"* fcH* J^* rfiang puh yuen t*heen^ hea pub 
Vew jin^ above he HA not rej>!CC against heaven, below 
lie harboured &o enmity against men ; J JL kan shang, 
>Tne up with; ^ i 1@ J pub shang urh ko 
not above two months; Jr T; shang hea, above 
below, more or less;^ i ^ k r tian shang wan, 
he above chapter; J: X^ shang sin, to rise up in 
raittd; ^ ^. t&ae te,1>elow. 

10. 1$ Tseen, and ^t seen, raeaDing tefwre; and 
how, after, come under this elas* of words : as 
^ sh&iig tseen k'cen, to go forward;^!. ^ yen 

, befcite one's eye; ^ ^ ^ ^ tsung tseen ehe 
soiae fofmer bdsrne^: ^ ^ tsag tsees, to be be- 
fi>re- ^ $ If Hi teeen fee\i k'ho keen, you may look 
before the carriage, i @. take warning;^ + ^ || 
yew Aih nee& t*eei>, ten years ago; >|| ^ tae iseen, 
before the tnbusa!, before Your Exceilerey; ^ ^ ^f 
18 we che tseep wSn, neve* heard of It fidfbre; ^ ^ 
Is^n tsin, to go forward; fSf ^ ^ ue t*eeu tsow, cb 
do you go l^efore; % $& sen che, to know beforehand; 
^" $L ^ ^tj-^ag seen k'liuiig. bow, ta strive lo gel 
before from a fear of belt^g behind. 

So also^ how; a ^?i how tae > in afte? asres; ^t 

how sbe 


trae sun, the children and grand-cMidrea of the coving 

|gj Keen, between* letwi$t> and <m0w}, is used as a 
prepositions: *ihus .?L $fe )f) fheen te keen, Hetw* 
heaven and earth; ^ ^ f cfaung been, amongst, amu&tj 
* J^- $fc $9 ythneenchekee,ia tibe course of a year. 
H. $} Nuy, and M> le t w*, and &**&,}"* wae, ***** 
6fe; may be ranked among die Chinese prepositions: as 

8 $J .yuea nuy, m the gardea; $fc $? te nuy, wiUi* 
in tfce laud* ^ ^L t& pub tsae QUJT, not compruad' 
therein;.^ ^ ^> ^ ^ W p6h tsae she kin she wy t 
not comprised within the prohibitkms; 3. U 1% ^ 
j^san jib nuy peih sze, will die within three days; $ 
^ chtng le, within the city;^. B3 le meeii, inside 

So abo#h wae; as ^ M^ k6 wae, outside the &u^ 
burbs; ^ %* e wae, beyond expectation; jfe $r k'hth 
wae, out of the common way, extraordinary; ^fe 34 ^ 

H- l*i wae she gin, to shew favour beyond the letter 
of the law;^ fi wae meea, and ^^ wae t'how, 
outside, outer surface; ^ ^ ciiioo wae, besides, with 
the exception of: these characters are always sepairated, 
the first commencing the sentence* ad the latter coai. 
pleting it: thus * % || 1ft ' * . jR ^ i ft * 
cboo joo chih kae foo yen niug cha peen wa. besides 
ordering the said Foo Magistrate to institute a 
Strict investigation. 

l2,^Tae, means for, instead of: as % tfc <P 
woo tae ne tso, I will do it for you; 

^ tae te tuug heang jin show k'hoo, he suffered for 
his townsmen. 

^ Tuy, signifies towards, to* opposite to: as ^ ^fc 

fjL tuy t'ha hw6, he said to him; ^ Jc ^ ^ tuy 
t'heen^hw^&he, he swore by heaven; || ft ttty meeu^ 
opposite ta 

Yin, ow account of; and ^ yuen, because of, nr.y 


be taken as prepositions: as BJ -{Ip ^yiu ne pub 
neih, on account of your obstinacy ; ^ % >ft yueu t'hae 
man. on account of your bad treatment; g ^ ^j via 
wei le^for Ihe sake of gam; @ $ Si ^ yn >*he eho 
he, be sacrificed dccifiduig to the time;jj& { ^ ^ 


peih yin ke tsae, you must employ men according to 
their talents. 

Keih, is used in the sense of to, until, &b<mt: as 
. 3l^ ke ch& mo keih ioo, the examination 
has no reference to you;^ JL-ft Jir A tan keih 
/shin mojin, who are you speaking about; 7^ ~ j^ 
keih iuii yu, until the second 

3l ("he. ar.d f IS taou, mean to, or ***#% a# j Jfe 

I, che tsze choo, to thk plaoe; ^ tt< 3[ ]fc 82e o 
frfi&e,Jh business having -come to this; xS|e ^ jj^- 
}Jt. % ^ uy che y u tsxe shin e, so that it come to this 
extremity: g. ^ ^^ch^ kae tsuy fan, regarding 
that criminal; f[ ^ it J^V "Sf ^ che yu nyu Jin 
k'hin laou, as far as the industry of the women is con- 

So also 5j taou: as -^ $} ^ 8^ sW taou t'heen 
ming, they went on killing until bredk of day; ^ f^ 
^1 ^ 1$L ^ Jt yn la taou pwan yay feng che. the 
Tain fell until midnight and theu ceased; ^ ^il ^ ^ 
s^e taou fce keen, matters having come to this pass; jfr 
IF* $] |Bt IL b in S P^b taou soo le, he bad not gone 
above a few miles; ^^j ^ lae taou ching, he came 
to the city; ^ $*! ^ %ts^ taou poo tsze, he receiv* 
ed the communication of the board ;^^jj J. ^ fting 
taou yuh ban, I received your valuable communication; 
H3 jfe taou te, down to the ground;^ ^|] chow taou v 
entire, complete; '1>|. J^' taou choo y every where; >JfL ^j- 
^> f^J woo go puh taou, extending to everyplace;^ 
^ taou te. or f !J j^. taou te, still, yet, after all. 

& Ch'biih, ow/,/rom, comes under the same class: 
as ^ & ^ na ch*huh lae, bring him out; ^ & ^ 
seay chtuh lae, write it out;^ ^ JJ5 f9 chuh t'ha 
ehtiuh mun, he kicked him out of doors. 

'$& Ho, and )^J tung, together^ with\ the former prin 
cipallv in coDversation; as ^J ifc -$r fSrho ne hing loo, 
to walk with you; ^ )^3fc ^ l^fi Jin ho ma, both 
and bor&es, 

occurs in the of together \ with, in cott- 

/*/ ^* l4 ?> v ^t ^ ^ ^ en ^ ^ e mao ^ 
j^ writh-.his comp&nions he braved death; 


^L A ^1- * ^" J?- leen jin yu shoo na keen, both 
the man attd the letter were brought up for inspection. 

Id. We may observe here, that many Chinese verbs 
comprise i themselves our prepositions, an account of 
which would come better uader the head f Syntax, 
A ter more exatnj lesof prepositions may here fee given, 

Thu nttouti 1*1 quantity > is expressed by./c $?| ta y<\ 
^ ^ ta kae^ HL^ -3$- cha puh to, Jb T> shanghea; 
thus ^v ^ jfiL t~ $fc ta yo woo tseen yin, about 
6000 dollars; ^ jK^lio'fc'he chin, about to depart; 
3k -Sfc -S& "^ ching yaou ma le, "he was about to a- 
buse; jfo i$L5L. $ she che ching yug, it was Qho&t 
tike first month; ^ 3& ^ t neen tsean^j luh fthib, he 
was about 60 years of age; W ~fc sze fang, and fil 
taoti choo, ail about, every where; ^ ^ 
tsew yaou tso, I was just about to do it 

14* According, is expressed by>$* e, 
gan,^| $5 sunjing,'andflfe.keu: thus^^Pj ganle, ac- 
cording to law; ^ ^ ^c tfr fcsua chaou gan pan> he 
managed it well accordingly; D$ ^ ^ jing foo yuen^ 
he accordingly repaired to die office; ^ 'jj. keukin 5 ac- 
cording to his petition;^ ^ Jb tsung e keen v accord, 
ing to your opinion; i$l $H$k.e kwei keu, according 
to custom. 

^<Kmf*may be thus expressed: as ^ Y^ tuy ne, or 
t^c 2Jt te joo, or)*, ^t fan ioo s against you* 

Beyowd., is expressed by j*h wae, ^ kwo, and^ yu : 
as v^" ?f bo wae, beyond the river ^ ^ fcvvd 
beyond the limit: ^ j yu^ two, beyond measure. 

Besides, is expressed by ^ f liog wae, 
hwao yew, }& ]fc choo tsae. uad ^r yu: as f i 
; /> yu t&ze che wae, ^r ifc M* t^e wae, besides 
^ ^ shang yew,, Btili more, besides. 

For through, the Chinese use iE t'hung, and x 
as it tr t'hung hing, to go through; $J ^ tsze t'how, 
to stab through. 

Wit hout. is thus expressed: as 5K ^ i6 ^ ^ ^t 
4^ fel joo urh we tih kew ming., without you we sfeould 
not have saved our rives ; Jft ^ ^ ^ f& i ^ woe; 
jptib tih (so $r e. without laoney men can&of trade* 


Concerning* is expressed hy 25 jS 31 yajl ^ une 
jVfBf bin, and I| ^ kwc? ya: as ^ f J J6 yu 
beting, ojeenaing your eider brother; !fc & ^ ^ X 
^* fun frae &e ie gSay shoo, I shall write to you a let- 
ter eoacieramg ifeis business, 


1. THIS is a very utimercus class, to which we 
wish to draw the attention of the student, for without a 
due knowledge of them, neither can the books be pro- 
perly understood, nor the language appropriately writ- 
ten or speken. The Chinese being destitute of in- 
flexions, much of the intelligibility of sentences depends 
upon the proper use of these particles. 

2. These are the following; Jt tseay , and, stands 

frequently at the commencement of sentences and whole 

sections: as JL llfc tseay&hwo, a&d it is said; which is 

aa introductory phrase at the commencement of most 

worts of fiction. This "particle also couples words: as 

'S & Hi fco tseay k''hw.n 3 rich and liberal; ^ ^5 

fi ^ sn ^ J cirSilseay kwang; Jee|i and wide; ^J i 

f^t gttoUeay^wShjoo, 1 also ask you; ^ JL J& 
^ yu tseay !&ou inae teen, in my old age I bought a 
field; Jl j^ tey foo, .now further, Jl jjt teeay joo f 
ac\vas % 4>r thus; JL IE Ji >%, tseay keu tseay teow, 
riw resisting, and now running; ^f 5. ^ ;fc JSl y 
tiseay pub <:he tsub, stil he was nat content; JL ^ 
^ ^t ^ ^M-^^y JD ( ^ bing pah ching ki^:, 
still, his actions were not correct; ^ ^C ^ IT ^ 3J" 
yew ua fcboo k'hiu k'hao, raoreovci he took the 


book and looked over it diligently r^fe JL koo tseay t 
^R JL kenen tseay, ^ JL teeen tseay, all signify for the 
time beiag, under existing circumstances : JL J\ *f6 
tseay ebih p'ha, I waly fear. 

This particle is also often used, as we have formerly 
jreinarked to denote the imperative: thus JL ^ T 
*j[ ffi tseay k'han hea hwuy fun keae, just look at the 
aext chapter for the explanation ;JL ^fL^.^I tseay 
p6h yaou sbwo, do not speak of it; JL H. "ft $ A 
tgeay mo bhw6 t'ha jin, do not speak of other men; 715 
JL JSfc ~fi t-sew tseay fang hea, just put down the wine. 

3. JC Yew, awdf fltio, is frequently used, especial- 
ly in conversation: as4| A ^ ^ X ^ ^ ^Ir A 
chow jin ehe to yew yew kew yu jia, if you receive a 
charge from people, you will also be solicited by them ; 
3t- K ^ ^ J ew chih she seaou, and only laughed; 
A m tQ* ffeA^^yew k'feuig p'ha pe t'hs 
eaou hwa, he also feared lest the other should Jaugb at 
bin*. It is frequently followed by a negative? as $k 
X ^ ^1 joo yew puh che, do you also not know; ^ 
^ ^ ^ y^w pui show ming, again he would not 
receive orders ;Jt ^ Jpjj ^| yew woo fan naoi^ more 
over he was not angry ;^X ^ yew lae, come again* JL 
^ ^t 3@r y ew ^ ae tee ^ ^ ew > again he got himself into 
a scrape; ^, ^L bvaug yew, how rtiuch the more; ^^ 
X- ffib yew, again; ^ X.^ ^ fiih yew joo tsse, a 
gain thus. 

This particle is often repeated ia a sentence ; as Jt ^ 

3^ "|fe ^ ^f X- ^ c ^ i ^ y 5 ^ yi ^ yia leaou yew 
chih, feamvg eaten he .iraafe ; aod fearing druakeB he ate 
agaic;^ X^^JL^JC^L ^ ^ ping yew 
sii:g puh keih, ss yew sxe pfih tih, he was so .^kk that 
he could not live, aadas for death He could .not die, i. e, 
neither dead nor alive; ^ ^ X, ^ X.^Hyew he 
yew muB^ yew king, he rejoiced and was sad, and alm> 
feared; * X ^ #Jt ffe^Jfe & ^JttTvayyew 
hwuy p5h keib, ka& yew ^ae woo sin, as to repe&tance 
lie could not effect ii, and a& for reformation he had no 

toifc;l& & K .X1^ .X Ji 

H. X A 


yew tsun sew. yew tseay to tsae, yew yew he k'he, yew 
laou shih, yew k'heen Jang, yew ho k'he, he was a man 
of manly beau ty, of much talent, endowed with spirit, 
honesty, modesty, and affability, 

4, 7*8 Urh, is used both as a eopulative and disjunc- 
tive: thus ^P ffii $f ^1 heo urh she shih che, to 
learn and constantly to habituate ^yourself to anything; 
1^6 H f^ urh yu jen, and he said yes, be it so; f^ 
^ ffij $p % yin go urh yang shen, hide the bad and 
proclaim the gbod. This particle is, however, frequent- 
ly used as a mere elegant appendage, partly to maintain 
the cadence, and partly to give a turn to the sentence, 
in which cases we cannot exactly translate it: as & $fe 
3%r ffi ^Pi- win woo tth urh ching, the people could not 
find tenas in which to praise;^ jg >) fa fQ fei 
keen man ui h ho, if this he not rudeness, what is it 4 ? 
1$t tfi !fc M tan urh piih yen, never tired with apeak- 

iag;^ ffip >. ^) 4&-A W B g ^A 6k nu y wo j'B# 
fortunately nobody was in the house; % 5^ |t 
36 ^ yew yih nyu mei urh been, he has a daughter 
who is both pretty and accomplished;^ 1& '3JL $i 
mwan urh bow se^, whey^ it is full it will nm out 
When ffi) urh is put between two adjectives or substan* 
lives the latter modifies the former: as JP, 35 ^ le urh 
jin, stern, but benevolent ; ^ T?D ^f- kaou urh pingj 
high, but level; jj|| ift $ kwaBg mh maou, exteasive f 
but luxuriant; $fe ^ Jfil JL ^ chuen kTiiiig urh tseay 
foo, rtre vessel is light and moreover buoyant: ify J$~ 
^ ^ ^ urfa kin ho yew foo, can this exist now ? tftt 
<$* S5' ^ urh kin urb how v heiieef<>rwdrd;if5 ti. urh 
e, sr:d lathing urore; -fc -^ i^ ^ jis tih urh a, bcnevo* 
lent but nothmg farther j ^c ~f~ 7tn\i. kew ts?^ urh e, 
nine sons oinrlj: ^ fe ^ &. yu tsge >irh , only here; 
^ ^ jen OTSI, still, yet; ^ ^ , ^5 urh e urh e, abr 
scluteiy Bathing more. 

5;- ^^Yay. and >^yih, are ved. as cofmlatives: ffe 
Ibnner 0n1y ia conyersataon : m ^ ^ ^L > -^ ^ 
jay swan rlha yew pun sss, it may be accounted that he 
has taUnts;4v *J ^" ^- tS ^ J*y seacwi BVTS WCK? 
lull fo 9 my. daughter a* lsk> laforiunaf^ It & 


followed by > yew f in enumerating things: as 

yay yew teen mow, yav yew kea tsze, he had houses, 

fields, and riches 

It is often put behind the pronouns and other words, 
when it may he translated by even: as ^ ^ ^ ^ 
hay yay seaou sze^ even, this is a small business; ^ .& 
Ifc? )fr dfe* 4ft g** y a y wo * m ts * G cning, 1 myself al- 
so have no intention to enter; the city; ^C ^ ^ ^* 
~~ $ jN- A 4C fr& shwuy yay puh hhay yth pe -.-yu 
fin keih teih, he did not eveo give a drink of water to 
the people ;1| ^ ^ >S if l|-;-3t.4fc shing heea 
yay puh V ho Vhantd yay, even a sage cannot thoroughly 
fathom it; * ^fc ^ ^ yih seay yay piih liog, not 
in the least degree intelligent; *| &. Jfe ^ y& 
faaouyay woogae, not the slightest obstacle. 

*& & Yay she, and & jfc ^ yay piih she, occur 
feiy Frequently: as ^ -^ ^ ^L ^ Hr y a y ^e moo 
ts'liiu yu pei, this is also prepared by my mother; & 
^ %L ^ {& ^ ^| yay she wang fei sin sze leaou, this 
is also spending one's thought to no purpose; $L ^ ^ 
^ctt yay we k'ho che, it is also what cannot be known 
or determined upon; ^ Jj^ yay we, not yet 

It is often repeated in a sentence several times: as ^ 
& ^ ^ A ^ ^fc Jfc S 3t tseen yay puh hwan 
jin, e yay ptth mae lae, he neither paid the people their 
money, nor did he buy any clothes;^ & ^ ^ ffi 
^ D & ^ ^ H$ W shiu yay piih yung ne kin, 
k'howyay puh yung ne I'hae, he will neither allow 
you to approach his person, nor permit you to open your 

It is also used in questions: as ^ ^ ^ ^ puh yay 
16 foo, is this not delightful $ ^f $f, ^ ^ ^ ^ 
k'han t'ha k'h&ng yay puh k'h^ng, to see whether he 
would or would not; ^ ty ;IL $L Jfc ^, puh che she 
yay puh she, 1 do not know whether it is so or not; ^ 
$& ^ & >T fi. puh che tsae yay piih t$ae, 1 do not 
know whether he i* there or not 

ffi \'ih, is mere fr^c:uer*t]y used in books: as ^ffc ^ 
"ft ^ t'ha yih ghwo yu^, fee 


this ie atao well, it wfll do; 3fc Jb& & & mow *ze 
yih: wooyuen, I bhouid even DO! refine were I to die; 
^^P A yihjoOiAe^itisalsothiis;^; ^P Jl ^ H 
JF ^ I*& <* teuh <*ay feo jfih yew, he who does not 
know contentment even when rich, is soirowful; ^f\ 
^F ^ ^ puh yih pe foo, was this not jjjtean'l l$l & 
f| Jfr. jjp 1" ^| suy ne tsze tseu yih k'helgen, though 
you have brought thi* upon yourself, still you are wor- 
thy of pity-; ^ fc ft IF It it ?t[ sh & P un sh o yih 

iae tbk tub, even ten volumes of books he ought to rend 
entirely through;^ 5^ Jjfr Jit ~f pf Jt keen she 
yih woo yen k'ho hw6 9 on seeing him he could not 
lifter a word; $t ^ & ^ H ^ yih pah yung gno 
been yew, he did not allow me to saunter about. 

6, ^t Keib. ifc used for and in edicts, and minor 
iviirtngs, though not of frequent occurrence; as ^ X 
^ gnckeifa joo, Iacdyou;X^t yew keih, now in 
Conjunction with; >i ^ e k^ until, to. 

\1|. Leen, occurs in the sense of and, together with; 
as#t ^H^ gno leen joo, I and you; ^ A ,% leen jin 
in*, both men and horses It is often followed by % 
yay. when it means even; as | & & ^ ^ leen 
fang yay fiah *a<>u, he had even not swept the room. 
In this ease it is often preceded in the first part of the 
sentence by ^ ^ mo shwd, do not say; Jf; ^ piih 
fih, nototjly;^ fR pub tan, not merely; ^ %& puh 
toh, not^nly: as X $$ * ^ |gj ^ ^ iS ^c ^ 
u Si ;pf puh tub tse tszehwuy lae, leen chih nyu urh 
k how fan chaou, not only did my wife and children re- 
turn, but my two nieces also came back; | Ifc *& ^ 
5t it * * 'It II # ^ mo sbw6 chay she 
che 16, Ken bow she cfae fuh yfti heang, not to speak of 
the joys of the present world, even the happiness of the 
world to coine he wiil also enjoy. 

7 ^ Keen, bears the sen&e of sad, together with ? 
COTgobtly: as^.^H If * ^ ^ IX >6 If flf 
jfe ping poo ^hang Riiookcen too ts'd yuen yew too yu 
*be, Ae prmdeai tf ihe mOsihry M*arcl and Tnember of 
the Ceiisurate: |^ 5E ^ ^ keun woo -keen le 

military affairs and the 


revenues; ^ rS ^* ^ keen ur ^ y ew c ^ to 
them together; jfe j)fc ^ JlJ^en tsze urhe, these two 
ideas conjointly ;^L Kt 4& l|S[ S y ew keen woo fr'he. 
meen, and moreover withou^ respectability;^ |& keen 
neg, to govern together: 2, fy IP ^T sati keen keen 
tseuen,the three form one whole; |t 1^ 3fc 1tL ehow 
yay keen tsow, be travelled both night and day ;^ ^ 
Ife Jk 3jfr w& a woo keen woo kung, ueiAer the civil 
nor military officers have any merit. 

;| Ping, has nearly the same signification as the a- 
bove: as ^ H. ^ shoo ping tsaou, the trees aad grass.; 
^ ^ ping keen, together with ;^ # *: ft ^ ^ 
^ Y chun ke show shuh ping meen yen che, let him 
redeem himself and avoid severe punishment; Jfi. *$}^ ^ 
|C tseay mei ping mei, both the sisters were beautiful; 
& 3f pinghing, to walk together; % Ifr fc 1% 
1> laouyew ping keae na hea, he seized on old an<t 
young; jfi ^ ?jfc y ih ping choo Ifiltr he killed them 
all together; 3 /J vt, ping leih chuy, to pursue wit hi 
united strength. As already remarked above it is often 
succeeded by a negative:^ ^ ^ 4 j|. ] If- ^ 
^t chih king ying s^ing e ping woo woo pe s they mere- 
ly endeavoured to obtain a livelihood, and there were 
no abuses; j| ^ ^ ping woo waug, hopeless. 

^ Kae, means and, together with: as %lk ^ ^ 
^r -J been ling kae he^ tae, the tteen magistrate and 
the military Commandant, -jt ^ ^L ^ she tseo 
kae wan woo, the hereditary aobility and the civil and 
military officers. ^1 Tung, with, occurs as a copula- 
tive: as 3% J^ y|t g no tuog joo, I and you: also yu, 
as )t ^ 1^ berung yu te, elder and younger brethren. 
In edicts we often find-fr pi hwuy^ tung, and ^ fil 
tub taeg, together with, in conjunction with, and un- 
der the guidance o 

<>. $ Tsih, signifying /An; sometimes stands for 
also, and; as Sli Q\ ty *$-& kwo th wfih taw kae f 
having tranfegre^ed, then do not Imitate to ch4nge* 
^ $L teih yih ^^y, then it is one, the*ame; ^p ^ 
^ ;!7 Si W ^ jfc ^g y ew }' u ''ht l ih e heo wan, 
if fiiexe still j$i8&itt. stresjj* fojr r^etice^ then 


terature; | fj ]| shih tsih tung 

eho, tsin tsih tung ehwang, to eat at the same tables 
and sleep in the same bed. This partirle is often usrd 
in deductions, and in pursuing a train of reasoning. 
1^ If j$ 3t it sew shin tsih taou leih, cultivate per- 
sonal virtue, then good principles will be established; 
^MMM-M ^ ^ M ^ ; k'hin tsih ching, 
ching tsih hing, hiug tsih tsin, be diligent, and it will 
be accomplished, when accomplished you will succeed, 
and when successful, you may advance. In the same 
way f^ |j jen tsih, and ^ Jfj she tsih, are also used, 
88 & 1$ i ^ g! J ^ & Yin joo chuy tsze, she 
tsih pBh lae since you have refused you will not come. 
hib particle is also repeated with yih: as J}*j 
^r ^^PJt^yih tsih e he, yih tsih e yew, partly witfc 
^ partly with sorrow. In conversation it stand* often 
wth *f ka, at the end of sentences containing a request; 
aft fr^ 4fc'H It SS ^T hwangt'heen k^ho leen 
chuy kcw tsih ko, let august heaven lie compassionate 
and grant release, then it will do; 

let him come Over and speak, and that will do. 

tp Tseih, then, is in some instances used as the a 
boye: as ^ $L ^ % IP A B 8i too yay we 
kdb tio tseih leen jib shwuy, last night rot having 
been able to sleep, I have been hiciined to sleep during 
Hv whole day; ^ -j| ^ ju tseih she tsin heung, this 
i#the*t my own brother. It is often putia this manner,* 
as explanatory of a foregoing part of the sentence. 

9 ^ Foo, stands often at the commencement of 
s^jtenoes as referring to something that has preceded: 
thus ^ ^ ^ foo jin ch.jy, now with respect to virtue; 
~^ ife '*& foo t^oo kwan, now the military Mandarins 
/ioasly f>|^ken c^g ^ ^ ife '^ H A foo yew 
pflA che cfeo yay, now this is true oppression. 
**WJt ^t Ttsew, then, Is ofteim&ed m conversation, as 
T^ *3fc ^C ^ ^ $jc yaou pub tso, tsew puh tso, if 
yti do'uot if ant to do it, then do not doit: also joined 
's $i ^ |k ^ ^ seang peih tsew she 
* ft mi^tbe he- ^ ^ ^ feew ^he leaotn 


it \* thus. This term is often preceded by J| 

shwo: as 3 ft ^ S &$*&$ 
shwo puh tain pur) fun, tsew she wang hing leaon, not 
only did he not do his duty, but he acted like wine dis- 
reputably;^ $fc i & & & + ^ *F -^6 hew 
sbwo snn keen,tsew shesbih keen too yew, not fci say 
three pieces, even ten pieces are IB my possession, it 
is also followed by ^ yay, when it means even: Ufa ^ 
IfL & ^ J5t ^ tsew wan sze yay pub kan tsse, I 
do not refuse to die even ten thousand deaths; Tfjfc ^ 
i$ ^ A& % >F % tsew she t'he* shih jin, yay 
kin puh teifa, even a man of iron and stone could not re 

Mark also the following expressions: i ^ ~j : $. 
t^|l >JR ^J cbayyang feeang iaa, tsew 
yew e sin choc leaou, this kind of language leaves 
no room for doubting; Ife i *$$ ^ tsew bSng joa 
t'hefe, it then Became hardened like iroa; ^t ^ ^ 
$t tsew he mung yih pwan,, it was like a dream. > 

11, 'I he use of ^ peea , liew, wen> nearly resem* 
Bles the above; as ^ ^ ^ ^ ^fc >f> ^ '^ l^ eia 
she pe tse yay puh k'ho k'hwan f even in my wife, I 
could not forgive this; %. & ^ If J^ ^ Jgt A 
fc ^L A ^| peen slje king^ sge t'heen tsze shS jin, yay 
fang jin kTian, even when the Emperor at the Capital 
puts any one to death, he allows the people to see it; 
1ft ~$$- F e n haou* ^at is well, that will do; ^ 1S: ^ 
>F 'flf_8 no l* ei1 ^k pBb.tih, immediately ! could not 
ea *l ^ ^ ^ ? ^- ^ a P^ en ma t& ^-uh, when he 
scoldea be abused people bitterly. It is also repeated 
jf 1 W ^ W 'fi ^ iae [)gen mae, puh mae peea 
pa, if you want to buy, buy; if not, Jet it alone; -flp f 

* flt ^ * H * H 4t ft ^ 1^ ^ e tfiR 
shoo peen tung gno luh, gno tun shoo peen tung lie 
tub, if you wish to study, then study with me, and if I 
study. 1 will study with you, 

12, $? &e*^ meaning therefore* then, yet, is used 
often at the commencement of a section, and ic coanec* 
tkm with^ shwo, to introduce a iiew subject Ja this 
instance it is ateo preceded by % jjjl puh te, let us drop 

the subject, and now speak of something else, Often it 
serves to render a sentence still stronger: ij* ^ *fil "J 
k'heopuh seih leaou, yet it is not to be regretted; 4$ J|, 
^ ^C ^ ife k'heo she leang yang peih f, yet these 
are two different hand*;||- % jjp >f % ^ ft jj: 
woo k'han ne fc6 wan k'he5 keae e, 1 shall look on unl 
til you have finished, and then explain my idea; H i$ 
if ^ ^r Jin teih k'beo pub haou, thus it is not well ; 
f 1ft $t ^ 3t -*P ^ ^ ne peea too mung, gno 
Vheft tang yay. you are dreaming, and I am benighted; 
^*'* W.#.,4 * ^ ^ ^ k'heo she ne fang 
gno, fei she yu tsin ne, you are making inquiries after 
me, it is not I who am seeking for you; -p ^ $fc %% 
%& k'heo she sin seang che, he is a new acquaintance; 
^P SL >F JL ^'he6 ping puh keen, he did not see him; 
^ B -SP .^ BF kin jih k'heo seang yay, do you still 
think about it?. It is often followed byj she, and & 
yayras^ ^ ^ *, ^ ^Tk s he6she yih 
tsze yay puh shih. he does not know a single letter; 


ko seaou tseay, k'heo yay swan puh tih yih o urh tsze, 
len daughters cannot be reckoned equal to one son; 
M ^ ^p & ~~ ^ sing lae k*heo she yih mung, and 
when he awoke, behold it was a dream \3Qf & ^ ^ 
k'heo yay haou seaou, it is after all a ridiculous affair. 
It is also often used in phrases implying a question, as 
some of the above sentences sufficiently hbew: so ako 
^F ^ ffl ^ k'heo she ho koo, for what cause is thk ? 
\i 1 3 ~ft *p ^ -^ A hay ko geang kuog, 
k'heo she ho jin, who is this gentleman ? 

13. ^ Fang, and $j|;tsae^ together witb^ seuen, 
and 31 nyih, are used for then^ the first is much em- 
ployed in all kinds of writing: thus ^ jf J^ ^ /v 
tth fang k'ho fub jiu 4 if you display virtue, you may then 
subdue 'mankind; ^ Jjj. ^jL j|| fang tih kee, he then 
attained his vvish; ^J ~# ^ fe guo fang fang sin^ I 
tht^ii set my mind at ease; ^ ^ ^f 3 fong tsae eay 
leaou, he then finished hb writing: ^ euen is ut>ed 
VM tbe same manner iu *di*ts but rather Beldam. So 
i bsaks aud 


Tsae, w frequently met with: as ^. r 
H $|, ^r SJ ^ hwan yaou che ke jih, tsae tih taou 
show, you have only to wait a few days, and then it will 
come to hand; ^ ?L H *|b ^ x!^ *f tsae s ^ e ko 
chang kew che ke, this is then a scheme that will work 
ing;^ Jl ft^Jt Ji tsaeplujen tih t'ha shaag 
tow, then you may deceive him, so that he will be 
caught, i. e. swallow the bait. 

fK'i nj;, may frequently be translated by and: as 
4SI- ~ ^ fc'* 1 ?;?- W<)O ^ y ea > an ^ ke did not 
speak one word; 7^ Jt~" Jl ^ SR ^J k%ig, sbe 
yih tso k'hung ching leaou, and it was merely an empty 
citadel; ^ ^, IL ^ >P t k'tngr che che puh 
w^n. and how shall we manage so, that he will ask no 

14, $] Taou, and &] taou, though verbs, the first 

to arrive, and the second to fall, are in conversation used 

variously as connective particles: thus ^ ^ & Tfc 

chay taou y ay puh tso, this then is not a mistake; 

yih keen, taou yay rneaou, if I had been one step earlier 
and seen him, it would have been well; %? ^ ^ & 
~*jj?- 3 ko sze taou yay woo leaou, every affair was mis- 
managed; ^t f^ ^j ^ @ ^ wei ho taou yaou hwuy 
k'heu,why do you want to return? ^ ^ ^ ^^ 
S. ^ ^ ^ nan taoune mun taou ching pin puh tih, 
it is hard to say that you cannot present one petition ; ^ 
^ 3 X ffl %- "^ |fe ne she nalejin taou hwuy 
sh wo hwa, from whence are you, that you are able to speak 
our language? & % f| &! # 33 ? -^ gnc 
k'heuen choo s&ng taou puh joo k'beu leaou pa, I advise 
you all to make the best of your way off; v6 f$ ^r ^ 

^ ^ij f^ $ flj . 3R ^ hw teih na P" h *6, taon 
na cho ko sze teih, it you cannot seize him alive, you 
may "btaiu ius dead body;^ 1^ %- ^ Hfe 3t ^^ 
bo taou k'heu hae t ? ha siing ming, why then do you qo to 
Hijur. bife life V j^j -S 4^- & *w tacu ^ c wo sin tsujg. 
on che contrary, he. is without affection;^ ^ 4r J>. 
tacu noo k'he lae, on the gontrary he got angry. Tins 
character may in the above iu&tdices iTc transited by- 


how&xr, *till* on the contrary, 4*e. whilst no one 
particle of oar own will in all instances convey -the idea, 
When joined toJsLte, it means stilL however ^ after all: 
a %] 7& -SS, Hit 3 taou te tsaou nan leaou, yet he 
met witb difficulties;^ Jl- ^ ^ li ^ J ft # 
^ dt ^f *flow woo yin-tseen, taou te yaou tsin leih 
mow ta sge, though 1 have no money, I shall still exert 
snyself to plan some great affair. 

It-is aifed often jepeaied W & i* ^ . fi ^ -$ 

* * * H* ^f , at *.JL Be too kwan 
kea tih ylk t^ou nmiy siig fe'he, nan taou ta yay taou 
muh sing k'he, though you be a servant to a magistrate, 
yet you can fall mto a passion, it is' hard to say that your 
master cannot also have -such ebullitions? 3% ^ l|" 
"ft ^ H f t ^ "fL ^S. gno pfih yen yii, ne taott 
shwo fchangshwft twan, though 1 say nothing, yet you 
prate very largely. 

Both j$| chuen, and )* fan, are used te signify on tht 
contrary, tft, yet: as % ^ ^ $ ft ^ jflJ ke tsuy 
chuen wo<> e fuh kea, this crime un the contrary cannot 
be exceeded in enormity; j|q| ^. ^r ^ chuen woo fang 
f&, on the contrary we have no resource; ^ 3^ ^ Jg. 
S $f sze P^h tneiiifan weiso hae, if the business 
ie not kept quiet, some mischief will yet come of it; 

* % % ^ JR % ^ % te mow kenyih, fan show 
ke vnng, thi* being a rebellious plot, they will still meet 
with calamity. 

15. $ Jen, stands for y&, truly, and still: thua 

^ ^ ^ ^ jenyih yew ch^ttill it does exist; $fr 

iffi ^ t jeKiirh wejin,set this is not benevolence; 

f X fg ^ k*hekejepfoo,h^wis it feus? ^ ft) 

"^ ^ ^ ^- jea tsih puh isuh bed foo, is it not then 

wcrtlsyto%e acquired? f* I^|^ Iff jea tsih tseang 

saeho, but then what is to be don 3 Jfe ^(C ^t 

^P $t cfce f^ze jen how cfee chung, if you know this, 

then you will also know all; ^ j f^ we peih jen, it 

IH not necessarlfe so; ^ $ ?o ^: t&aee jen nrh jeu, it 

k thus in itself, self-existent, always the same, immuta* 

We; $f ^ jeu yay, it u truly thus; ^ ^C P^h jeiij it is 

thus Compouads like ^ Tfo jen urh, but; 


my jen, although; $& <|ft jen how, afterwards; |$fc ^ 
ke jen, since; ^ ^ jen yih, also;f5 $& jing jen, as 
heretofore ; are frequent in the best writers, 

16. Ip. Suy, is used for though^ although^ with its 
compounds; as SjL Jj suy jen, notwithstanding; | |& 
tSK 5fc suy jen joo tsze, although it be thus; *jg| j$ j^k 
suy joo tsze, ditto, ip. J& ^ suy j5 she, ditto. ^ $ 
^ Jjt suy jen chay yang, ditto, used iu conversation: 

fj^ suy she, although it be thus; % 4i $ 4j ^JL 
i? ^ su y y ew tY ^ ^i G S' we t$a$tseuen pe, though 
he has virtue, yet is he not perfect; || ffi i ^ 2, 
^ ^ ^ ^ ]. suy jen yang tsze san neen, k'heo we 
kan gan, though he nourishedt the child for three years, 
yet it did nQt prove grateful; 9JL Jgl ^ & $ ife- p 
2 ^ suy joo she, jeu fei king keu che sin, fhoupi it 
was thus, yet did he not shew any fear; ^ ^ >J ^f 
$f ^F ^ ^ suy shing, yih yew so puh che yen, 
though a man be a sage, yet there are some things which 
he will not know; JJ; ^^^^^P?S^>fc 
suy woo puh heo, jen hwuy w&n urh che che, though I 
have not learnt this, yet 1 know it from hearsay The 
particles that most commonly follow $jl suy, in the 
cond part of the sentence, are ]fc yih, $fe jen, <$|I 
t^ shang,^: tsew, and ^ yay. 

$* Ke, occurs in the sense of since: as ^L 
5fc ke jen joo tsze, since it is thu; gfc '^| |f ^ J 
^? ke yew tsin sin kee leih, since he has exerted him- 
self to the utmost. 

$) Shang, stands for yet, still* fyc, as 'f ^ shang 
yew, there is still; ^ ^ ^ ^ 1l f!L Ife ^ neen 
suy laou mae, shang n&ng che ma, though he is old and 
decrepid, yet he can gallop about on horseback; $j ^t 
& shang tsae uh, he is still at home; -flfc 1^ ^ J^f f^ 
t'ha shang we ching sze, he has not yet accomplished the 

$5 J ing, signifies still t as before: thus 
jen, again n as before;^ ^ jiog kew, as formerly; 

ing shang wang pe^still hfi'went thither; $$ 
c ^ aou ^ ew pan r arrange it as heretofore; 
lae to 


jifig t& tseen ch&, he still commits the former faults, 
he goes on in the old way. 


17. The&e are 3S jo, andifc joo: thus ^ Jq 

1st j^ tsae ^ woo *fke a g a * n faH * nt(l an error; ^ J^ 
fa%tft^L%&3b jo p&h raeen leih tso guh k'h 
shin, if he do not exert himself, and go quickly on big 
journey; % ffc jo fee,, since it is thus; $jj $ Jf\ &\ j& 
jo jen puh seaou sin, if you do not take care; jjg ^ ^ 

jfc" 3F 41 'V . .t^ * A j^ ^ e t5h * ae P& n k'han ne 
tso kung foo, if I come back again and do not see you 
at work ; ^C %> H & ^ ^t gnojowoosifcwfcane, 
if 1 had no intention of asking you; ^ : ^ ^^ fijT 
kaou e keen jo ho, what is your opinion; 'p 1C ^ ^5 
yen seaouts2ejo,he spoke and laughed, as if he were 
at ease-;fi ^ seang jo, similar to each other ;JS H 
'RT ^ jo tsze ho lae, from whence does he come 
Jfe ft jopei, men of the same kind, fellows ;J 
)H ^ jo p^i fei t'hoo, such a set of villains. 

iB Joo, is also used in this sense: as^P ^% jfe joa 
yew rhe, if he has a mind;:|i ^ $j || joo shoo taou 
jh. if the letter should arrive on that very day; jjjj ^ 
'S* joo fan chaiig\ as if turning round his har.d; ^ ^ 
^ ^ joo soo tsinghwan, to pay according to the num- 
ber, to pay the whole; in ^ ^H ^ joo e joo yuen, ac- 
cording to one's wishes and desires; ^ in -j ^ tang 
joo che ho, how then shall we do; ^ ^ ^"fj joa 
the nae ho, what is then to be done 1 


18. The principal ones are yin, ^ yuen, ^yuen. 
*& koo, ^ ^ yuen koo, ^. ^t ^she e, ^ wei, 

g \in, exptesnes for, because, on accQuwtof: as 

sr w 3 ^ 


9t .A, y* n seaou shih ta, on account of small matters 
he ha* missed greater ones; $fc S ^ ^ peib jiu lie 
tsae, it must be^n account of his talents * gj jfe >, ~$fc 
yin tsze che koo, on this account; S H^F ffc ^ yhxtJie 
che tee,' to sacrifice according to the seasons* 

^ Yaen, and^ yuen, occur in the same sense: as 
||l ))t ^ $L /& yuen tsze puhyu sin, on this ao 
count he was not delighted; Jt fc $p Sfc Vpen lae joe 
tsze, originally it is thus; ffl $t 3S> >t ^ ' ifc ^ fc 

^ ^ yin joo faa ft yuen too, pSh kan kliwan tae, I 
dare not be lenient, because you have transgressed 
the laws;^l ^ H ^ JToen pun tstiv go, OB account 
of our w%dness: f f Jf% j| .** 
^ ^ i yin puh koo tsin tseih che yuen, keae keumg 
koo too s^ng, by not paying attention to his relatives^ 
they spent a life of poverty. 

jg Kae, occurs in the sense offor.because : as ^ ^ 

*tfl" ^ "If ^ ^ ae ^ eun ts *g yi y ew chang sze. for 
in military matters, tliere is a constant duty to perform; 

t Jt^f^^^&^^feae sbang she 
chang yew puh chwang ke tsin chay, for in ancient 
times the &Q were some who did not bury their relations; 

gt t J ^ ^t T -fT ^ S kaeeshinming 
show taou, puh wang hing che e, for it was with the in- 
tention of maintaining good principles, and of not acting 
disorderly. J|[ Kae, often commences essays, that con- 
tain a whole string of reasonings, but it is by no means 
so frequently used by the Chinese as the genius of our 
language would demand, arid foreign writers err by 
inserting it wherever for occurs in our tongue. The 
surest way is to substitute g| yin, which is by far the 
most common, and also to let the cause precede the ef- 
fect, which is almost; an invariable rule iu Chinese. 


19. & ChihjJt ebe,fj^ c?he, and 1^ ta, are used for 
but, only^ &*c. the first in conversation, the second in 
good writings, sad the two following ia edicts, 

140 DISJUNCTIVES. . (MA?. Vttt. 

Chih, is often followed hjjt she: as 3^ Jv Jt 
j 4 ^H gno ehib she sze ieaou pa, there is sothiug 
left &v iftfe but todie; J* ^ $k i% chib she jin nae, 
ills hly to* be patient. Followed by $6 pa, ffi tih, 
3*f haou, and^f kwan, it -gives a peculiar emphasis to 
those i^ordb' : as,j\ *f& ^ 3& ^ *jj? chih pa sze puh 
w&n tatig, I only fear that the business is not secure; 
j?> 5. H |fe ^ chih san jih tsew lae, he will come in 
three days; 3% * '" v ;& gno chih tang puh fhe, I 
merely acted it as iff knew nothing of it; J* H6 "5$ 1P9 
V$fr j!t chih pa ne mun hih sze, 1 only fear you will 
be frghtened to deathf ^> ^ Jf^ ^f& W ^ ^ shwtt 
lae chih pa ae pdh sin, if I tell you, I fear you will not 
believe; }* ^ chih tth, means/orcerf, without resource^ 
and occurs fts commonly as the preceding: J ^ ;fe 
^fe chih trti k'he ching, there remained nothing for 
him to do but to proceed on his journey, z. \ J& vi 
}> ^ S^ 1fc ttrfi jin woo fa, chih tih kiin t'ha, they both 
were at a loss what to do, and had only to follow him; 
'X 4f *"" ^~ fe 3 chih tih yih tse k*hei leaou, 
they were forced to go all together a way ; ^ 0$- \|, ^ 
chih haou chay tang, it is only *f this ort; }* ^ m 
^ Jt A. chih haou tso ko wan JIB, he is only good for 
a literary character; J^ $$- ;^ fl chih haou woo 
luh jih, only about five or six days; JP ^ chih k\yan> 
signifies merely, only tJris:J& ?j ^;i chih kwan 
fang sin, only quiet yourself; J?^ ^ ^"% ^ 4- cbih 
kwan k'hin k'hin^iuh shoo, only attend diligently to 
your books; j\ ^f ^ H ^ ^. ^ *fe chih kwan 
chungjih tan lae tan k'heu, he would do nothing the 
whole day but babbk and talk;j^ J[ cn1 ^ e ^ means, 
only this is proper; J J^ chih koo, only regard this, 
mind nothing else; ){ %* chih k'ho, this alone is prac- 
ticable; J* jfe IS A chih tszeurh e, only this and no- 
thisg else; JS^ M chih yew. merely this, and nothing 
else;.)*, |fc #t ^ Ife chih yun tsae show nan, only on 
this account he suffered, it Ghe, is used iu the same 
manner, but by far not so frequently : thus jL ^| ^ 
ijhe y$w yit tseen, I have only one cash; ^ ^ 3$ % 
^ jt ^fc 5" S ae c ^ e j 8 ^n, puh che jocr tssej be 


loved him as his own self, and not merely as his son; 
IP & te ne.en, but, o'nly 1 thought; .^jL-'ff $ ^ Jft 
che kwei ke kangshun, but valuing their obedience. 

20. fS Tan, Ip tan, and fit tan, signify but, only: 
as IS. ?$J A *!5 ^ tan lew yih jin urh k'heu. he 
left only one man and went uway;^JL > Ht ^tan 
puh t'hing ming, only he did not listen to the orders. 
It is often followed by3*ehih; as ffi. J* -fejB JC 
Hf Ijfa tan chih woo pang yew k'ho ts'bing, but he had 
no friends to invite ;$L $fe >P ^i& H tan jeu puh 
nng kwo man, he could not OTercome his grief; ffi "f| 
^L )ifc tan ts'hing fang TO,, I only request you io be at 
ease; ^fE^^Ji jfc tan yuen jootsze, I only wish that 
it may be so; >f ^fc Jfi $# tan tso puh fang, there is 
no objection to your sitting down. It often means 
wheresoever, all: iR <Q ^ ^ tan taou che choo, 
wheresoever he came ;>fE @ fa M ^ an taughingchay, 
all who went with him. 

ty Tan, is used in the same sense: as If* ^ 1% 
fSS tan shaou .t'ha.yih ko, he alone is wanted; ^ J 
^ Si ^I tan ehihkwan hooshw6, he thinks of no* 
thing but talking at random; 11 ^. ^ Jfc ^ tan tae 
ts'hin kin gho> h only approached me, or condescended 
to me; jp ^ ^ *l^ 4^ tan koo ke kea seaou, he only 
looked to his family, m Tan, is used in the same sense. 

21. ffi Wei, flji. wei,$| wei, and 7J nae, signify on~ 
ly, but: thus ^ ^ ^-^ % wei cho we mo kwang, 
but the table was not yet polished; ^ HL iS iL wei 
Iwan urh e, there was nothing but anarchy; *$. 3@ 

IB wei le she too, only hankering after gain^ ifji 
^ ^ wei ming she t'hing, only listen to orders, 
Wei, and ^. wer, are used in the same manner. 

7$ Nae, is used as a particle: thus 7) ^ ^f '\ 
nae puh k'ho kew t^un, hut it cannot be Icmg maintain- 
ed; 7} ^ ^r /i Bae puh show sin, but he could not 
guard his heart: ^ % 36 nae, or 7$ $ nae jo, mean as 
to, as regards. 

22. ^|f, Hwan, is used in the sens*; of &ko* stilly or: 
&*%* ^S "ffc iC tt fif puh seang fha bwan ke tih, 
1 did not think that be iras stBJ erifidfol of it: 


hwaa shaug isaou, it is still early; j^ J Ife 

choq leaou gno hwaa yew i*a ko, if I be ex- 
cluded^ who else is there. With a negative after it, it 
means not yet.- as ^ %* ^ ^ ^ bwan puh taou pu 
heang, he has sot yet arrived in Iris native place. Re- 
peated it means either, or: as ^ Jfe . ^ ^ -& &- ^ 
bwan she tang chin, hwau she kea* is this true or false ; 
^ -3t "p&. Jfc' ill *. W * twan she tseu tse, hwau 
she tae seay, whether will he marry her or still wait a 
little. The second is often left out: as $~ U ^ 
C ~$L $L & ^ ^ kin jih pfch che, hwan lae y$y pSh 
lae, to day we do not know, whether he will eorae or 
not; 4$ til ^ ^ ^fe- ^ ^ ne hwan she lew yupuh 
lew, will you detain him or not;^Sl ;: J|^ ^ ^J?* 
^ hwan she keen t'ha puii keen t'ha, have you seen him 
er not. It may also be translated by then .* as ^ j$i 5" 
^. ;1L ^ Ifc S chay yin tsze hwan she yaou kin teih, 
this money then is of some importance; J)? ^.^t ?5& 
^ $ na le bwan iin teih ch T hub,how can you recognize 
him; ffe ^ ^ 1(5 f >b 36 , * ^ t 1$ gno rhay 
yang teih k'htio pe sze hwan kea shih pei, this kind of 
suffering is then ten times worse than actual death. 

23. ^fe H w6, and Iffp yih, signify either and or : with 
a negative neither arid nor: thus ^C ^ ^ ^ hw& 
wang hwi>- lae, either coming or going; ^ ^ ^ ^h 
hwo tso hwo gno, either sitting or lying down; *% $ 
^ ^F ^S hwoien hw6 puh jen, it may be thus or it 
may not; 1$ ^ A JS. jR j <f Bflhwo puh tsae 
uh, hwo puh tih been, he is either not at home, or not 
atleism?; 3% *)jfc ^ ^ ^ 1& ^ 5. hwo ne puh she 
hwo t'ha puh she, either you or he is iu fault. 

ffl Yih, is employed in the same way: thus $? ^F- 
J& 3L yih we che taou, or it is not yet uaderstootl; 
tff $ A "ft 7& yih jin mow, or is this a plan of 
theirs; $p M 4fe W~ yib tw5 woo yu, is this nothing? 
^ -^ yih ho, how; ^ JL yii tseay, or. 

.test, is expressed by $ k'hung: iinfe^, by Bfe ^ 
choo fei: notwithstanding, by^L$fc suy jen, ^ ^ 
jp ft suy jen joo tsze, ffc ^ JP ^ ke she joo jen, 

CHAfvlX, 143 



1. THE expletives constitute a most important class 
of words, not only for rounding peliods, but also for 
promoting the intelligibility of sentences, and their con- 
nection with each other. They are the very essence of 
construction, especially in the literary style, asd tlteir 
omission, or wrong position, is not only productive^ of 
jarring sounds, but may entirely change the meaning of 
a sentence. The principal ones are 

2. $ Foo, this is used in admirations, or exclama* 
tions: as # ^ yuen foo, how detestable! v5 ^ shin 
foo, how deep ! Often merely to complete the rhythm us : 
as 'jt ^ '>& *& e foo vew hwuy, it was right that he 
should feel regret We bave already remarked that it 
jls often put at the end of sentences, and in such instances 
it ifc now and then followed by-^ tsae: as^ ^ ^ 
3$ jin yuen foo tsae, how far off is virtue! It is also 
repeated in interrogations: as^ % 2$ 3* 3t B8 M 

^ ke heo chay foo, ke w^n chay foo, whether has he 
learnt it or heard it*? ft ^ ^ ^ ji shwi^ k'heu foo 
ehwuy choo, who goes and who stays ? ^ ^ puh y ih, 
either as a question or sign of admiration has -$ foo, 
after it: as ^ ^ fc ^ puh yih jin foo, is not this be- 
nevolence? ^ $ HF ^ puh yih kin foo, is not this 
diligence ? In the following instances it may be consi- 
dered either as an expletive or a preposition: as $ ^f- 
tft] en'huh foo ke keen, he came from amongst them; 
~# )& e foo tsze, diiFerent from this; ^ f ~ ifc ho 
foo fsze, agreeing with this; $| ^ J& ke foo sze, or 
$ & ft shoo foo sse, nearly dead;^# ^ 3t fl 
sze foo foo tsin, like his father, 
^ ^ Woo foo, is synonymous with 3fe*j$% woo ben* 
^ y^ woo foo, ^ yjjf. w-oo foo, and HH ^ wcw> foo, all 
f which denote a/a^ / 

3.^ E, and 1^ he, are mere fi&aS particles, and 
atri-ctly euphonic, denoting au annti^ m the 


img sentence, or terminating a phrase: as %$? }) $ |L 
*eang peth jen e* I think it must be so; -- ^ "J j^ 
kin she jen e, BOW 1 examine the words; *% fa Jt 
k'ho che e, it may be known ;- || jfj ft It Jin e 
urh e e, only virtue and justice, (nothing more;) $$% J 
It chwang yu ke she e, stored up in the mar- 

ket; % ~ 9& >t g^voo we che che e, I do not yet 
know it. It often corresponds with the relative 
hay, and admits the following combinations ; as |^ 
e f<*>, ^ A e foo,|tJl jen e, 3 urhe, & ee, 
and ^ H ho e, which are mere finals. 

-^ He, is mostly used in poetry, for the same pur- 
pose as the above: as J$; *$* ^ -^ hih he heuen he, 
now splendid ! how glorious ! -^ H A *$T pe me 
jin "he^ that beautiful person ! ^ A ^ se fang jia 
he, one from the western regions; ^ JL ^r -^ gan 
teeay hingbe, tranquil and happy. 

4. ^ Tae, is a particle like ^ fco, and is used in 
exclamations as well as questions: as^.-^^ shen 
tsae wMn, how excellent a question! % ^*$ A foo 
tsae yen yay, how rich the language ! fi *K 'fc 
been tsae hwuy yay, how worthy a man is Hwuy ! 1f 
^ ^ ^ ho ke meaou tsae, what an error ! JL ^ 
^ A. )& 3L tatsae sbing jin che taou, how sublime 

are the principles of the sages lljii t*F ^ 3* fuh ho e 
t*ae,- why again doubt ? $: >& -{ gan tsae tsae, where 
is it ? J| ^ ^ ^ ^ keuen tsze to foo tsae, does a 
Superior man have so many (wants) % 

5. <fc Yay, is still more frequently used as an ex- 
pletive, and is often added tojj| ehay, in the following 
manner: 1 ? In definitions: as ^ J| : ^ shen 
chay jin yay, goodness is benevolence;^ ^ ^A. 5l 
^T Sifctaouchay jin che hing f& yay, good principles 
are the rules of human actions. 2, It refers to a former 
subject, and then precedes ;% chay:asf" ^ ^ ^jf ^ 

r j ^ -^ sin yew yay chay, puh k'ho tseue yay, feith- 
fulness among friends (the subject just alluded to) can- 
Dot be dispensed with; ^ ^ ^ ^ f ^L^^fc 
chung yay chay, t'heen bea che t& pun yay, the due me 
diiim FS the grand principle current through the world, 


Or it follow : 8^ chay at the end of a sentence; an 
IF ^r 3~ 1$ ^j^^AJ&we h^o y an g ^ 2e - urb 
ken r hay yay, (women) do not (first) learn to nourish 
children and afterwards tnarry ; tffc ^- J^ |j} jgj ^1 
^ ^ Jf^ "& we * kin *& e w fc Q * wh w ** ''be '-he chay 
yay, we have beard it just now, and did not know it 
previously. 3, It is often a mere final particle, and 
of this innumerable instances occur in every book* 4, 
It is often repeated: as ^ T IT M) & ^^'HT 

1w 4* & * *T IS & t M ^ T ft * 

t'heen hea k*bo kin yay, tseS 16 k*ho tse yay, pih jin 
k'ho t'baou yay, ehun^ yung pSh k'ho n^ng yay, o e 
may be able t& pacify &e eidpire, refuse titles of nobt 
Ity, tread on a Jiaked sword, (i e. boldly brave dan* 
tfers) and still be unable to maintain the due medium; 

jA J$f P *$ - j&f ^ ^* s ifcg * t^^g yay^ ming sp 
e yay, surnames are alike, but individual names are dif- 
rrent 5, It is often used in answer to questions: as 
IS ^ k'ho foo, can it be done f ^ ^T & piih k'b'o yay, 
h cannot be dose; ^ ^ yew foo, have you got it? _ 
% $. we yew yay, not yet; it is likewise joined*: proper 
aies, when calling on any one: as if <& Yew yay, 
Yew! 3Jt ^ Jfc* he Yu yay, come Yu! j| ^ & Aia, 
geay yay, Ma, write. 

It may be useful also to mark the following sentences : 
SB 3j| |- ^ ^ A *& fhing sung^ woo yew jin yay, in 
deciding cm lawsuits I am as others; K^f ^ 3& ft 3h 
^ iS. woo fooy uen ke fun yutaou, oh bow far has he 
abandoned right principles! ^, ), ^ 13* ^ ^ ^0 
2- It taou che pub hing yay, woo rhe che e t I know 
why righ^ principles are uot acted upon; ^. ^ ^ ^ 
^. jjj^ /J ^. ^ ^ Jl^ ^ ^ k'nra cbae che j^Sh 
Chuen yay, nae t:^ung t&h che pub e e, the reasoQ of tber 
Imperial commissioner^ not communicating tbis^ must 
besought la the GovertM>r's dishonesty; jfc & ^L $i 

yih yay, in burying one's father and mother, it is the 
same, whether one be in respectable or mean circum* 
& a final it is also followed by j^yu: as ^ 
R R* ( jin bing pub wa&gmiu yay yu 


a benevolent Government does not entang e the jifetiple t 
{in the net of the law;) ^ & yay e, is of frequent oc- 
currence: as "ij~ "IK ^ ^ *& k'howeijin fang yay 
e, it may he called a virtuous plan; ^ J5L |fc -fc 6, 
|>uh tbuh kwan yay, e, not worthy to be looked upon. 

6. :fcr- Foo is used by the befit writers as a final, sy 
toonymous withjj/i yay, and H e, with which it is also 
combined: as t$ ^ ^P T $T 3$ Jfe Jfe." ching ehe 
puh k'ho yen joo tsze foo, sincerity 'cannot thus be hid- 
den; 31 J^ shin ta, or3l jt ^ shin ta foo, it is very 
great! t 2^. ft .^t wanjg* che ming e foo, it is 
your fate to die; ||j$; 3ft -fe jt ^gno che yay foo % 
no one knows me;^ |t .^ woo e foo, it is done with 
me; ill ^jt ^ft ^ h& wang kwan foo, why do you 
not go and look ? 6 ^ A e e foo, abstain from it 

7. ^% Yen, is often added at the end of sentences 
for the sake of elegance; J- ifc ^ A ^ yu tsse yew 
jin yen, there are men here; X >p & ^ e shaou sge 
yen, he ought to ponder a little; E A ^ ^ ^ 3fe 

| ^ ^ san jin hing peih yew gno sze yen, if there be 
three walking t< gether, 1 shall always fiiid a teacher, 
(t e. one of the number will teach me.) It is also re* 
peated for the sake of cadence: a EH j$f ^ ^ ||" 
^ 4 ^ S 2e she hing yen, wan wuh kng yen, die 
four season* revolve, and all things are generated; JL 
^ Ht ^i ^ ^ ft ^fi shing shin he yen, wan wuh 
fuh yen, the stars are suspended (in heavens, vault) 
and all things are overspread. It is likewise an ex? 
pletive: as i ^ ^ shaug yen chay, suj)eriorH; 7* ^ 
^^hea yen chay, inferiors; % -/^ ^ ^ ^ yoo yew 
bwo yen chay, there are still some who doubt. This 
particle is often used for the sake of alliteration, which 
is a peculiarity of the Chinese: as Ip J: jSL $| teih 
shang t'heen yen, he then ascended to heaven; ^ ^ ^ 
^ taou puh chuen yen^Jrue do< triass hftve fiet b^eu 
commuiucated^p )fe ^ ^ joo tssse yen yen, thus 
speaking; ^^^ mei yen yen, a fine countenance* 
Expressions like & ^ hwub yen, suddenly; 7& )^i ^ 
tun bin yen. Joyfully; where H yen, b 


mth *$C jen, in the formation of adverbs, occur in the 
best writers. 

8. & Urb,^f urh, and US urh, convey as finals 
the idea of the diminutive. 

i& Urh, principally in conversation: as #?- 'ft 3 & 3t 
^ 3fc tseang shwang yea urh kwan gno, he looked at 
me with both his eyes; V 1JJL 'HfL $$ %) 0& 3% ~?$ % 
k'how le shw6 ke keu haou k'han hwa urh, his mouth 
uttered a few fine words. In descriptions it is repeated 
for the sake of euphony: as ^ & '2 $- J&' ]$ P 
$j ^ Jjt $L U$t yen urh shin, f>e urh kaou, ch'he urh 
k'hung, shun urh k'hwang, the eyes were deep, the 
nose projecting, the teeth hollow, and the lips wide open, 

Jf. Urh, is inore frequent in books: as ^ jjjf ^ ffi 

^ ^ ^ ^ 3 ^r ^ eun c ^ a y ^ e h^ we i puh yew 
ke mi og urh, he is almost a prince, and only wants the 
name; |fe & 3t fuhszeurh e, not think about it; 

^ Ihlltar* ^Jl * X f ^ puh he tso 
chay lung peih fhow te win kwan urh, he did not like 
to become a civil Mandarin that handles the pencil; || 
& ^ 3&F ^L *^ ^S fe J^ ^ ^F" fei shay ptth tih 
chay jdh ting,woo shatooaurh, could I not throw away, 
this bU of black gauze cap t i. e. the badge of authority, 
and retire from office. 

|$f Urh, is also met with: as | ^ /^Ut keung 
tseenjin urh, a poor, mean wretch;^ || H ^ keu 
urh pa ping, on a sudden he disbandedhis soldiers; >$L 
ffi ^ ^ fjfwei sotsih yen urh, it depends upon 
what you chooss; ^C^ ^f Jl $ koouvbtseen tseay 
gan, let us therefore rest a little; 7) HI nae urk, it is 
thus ; ^ |Sf yun urh, just as it is aid, \c. It also forms 
adverbs like$ jen, and ^ yen: as ^ |f tsuh urh, 
suddenly;^ ^ shen u&, well; % ffi <hd urh, confi- 

In ancient writer* ^5 urh is used, on account of the 
similarity of the sound, in the same manner. 

]! Choo, is in some sentences a mere final. Jp Yu, and 
J$t yu, are either singly or combined with others used 
eriroaJk such as ^ |. ^ yay yu teae, Io 

148 sxpiSJTim&s AW mrEiwEenoNs, CHAP. ix. 

tion t*/,n, frjlle, and other provincial expletives are al- 
so employed. 

Amongst the compounds we enumerate the following: 

31 H * y en * * ^ y * **$ ffi 
e. H yen wh t e, & ^ & ^ e foo e foe, & * 

^ e e foo, 6 fi A e e too. 

9, jQf t&ie inteqections the following way be no* 
ticed : ^ gae, ^ e f *% be, P^ neen,t^ e, jg; yew, ^ |^ 
beu e,ii* f gae ya, j^ tffe tseay tsze, -Jg yew tsae, 
signifying oh ! A vaunt ! is expressed by 

80w P*^ fc <& cte . Alas ! b l 
klio seih, vj i^ ben tseay^||- ^e yri, 

he, andtiteufe. When calling any one m conv 
tion the Chinese ue Pf ya, ^0,^5 $] ^ Vjfr gno teih 
Iseya, my wifef^l: jg-^ IS W shehaou haou e o, 
what an excellent idea ! , ^ na f been, oh heavens ! 
, andl^fow, aro interjeetioas expressive of 

16 ya, are inteijertjons of astoniEjment: z; yua, rtr 




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